Table 1

Pathophysiology of acquired cardiovascular disease in congenital heart disease 

Acquired cardiovascular diseases in ACHD
StrokeCAD
ACHD-related factorsNon-ACHD-related factorsACHD-related factorsNon-ACHD-related factors
  • Previous shunt operations

  • Residual/unclosed septal defects

  • Left-sided mechanical valves

  • Arrhythmias

  • Endocarditis

  • Hypoxaemia

  • Secondary erythrocytosis

  • Iron deficiency

  • Associated syndromes

  • Heart failure

  • Age

  • Heart failure

  • Myocardial infarction

  • Diabetes mellitus

  • Arterial hypertension

  • Arrhythmias

  • Congenital coronary artery abnormalities

  • Previous surgical procedures

  • Compression of the left coronary ostium

  • Cyanosis

  • Age

  • Arterial hypertension

  • Hypercholesterolaemia

  • Smoking

  • Obesity

  • ACHD, adult congenital heart disease;¬†CAD, coronary artery disease.