Table 2

Associations of egg consumption with risk of cardiovascular disease among 461 213 participants

EndpointsEgg consumptionP for linear trend*HR for 1 egg/week†
Never/rarely1–3 days/month1–3 days/week4–6 days/week7 days/week
CVD
  Cases812517 08638 147858012 039
 Cases/PYs (1/1000)22.721.920.820.823.6
  Model 11.000.94 (0.92 to 0.97)0.88 (0.86 to  0.91)0.86 (0.83 to 0.89)0.84 (0.82 to 0.87)<0.0010.96 (0.95 to 0.96)
  Model 21.000.97 (0.95 to 1.00)0.92 (0.90 to 0.94)0.90 (0.87 to 0.92)0.89 (0.86 to 0.92)<0.0010.97 (0.96 to 0.97)
  Model 31.000.97 (0.95 to 1.00)0.92 (0.90 to 0.94)0.90 (0.87 to 0.93)0.89 (0.87 to 0.92)<0.0010.97 (0.96 to 0.98)
IHD
  Cases2866552913 54130695164
 Cases/PYs (1/1000)7.76.77.07.19.7
  Model 11.000.92 (0.88 to 0.97)0.89 (0.86 to 0.93)0.84 (0.80 to 0.88)0.86 (0.82 to 0.90)<0.0010.96 (0.95 to 0.98)
  Model 21.000.95 (0.91 to 0.99)0.92 (0.88 to 0.96)0.86 (0.82 to 0.91)0.89 (0.85 to 0.93)<0.0010.97 (0.96 to 0.98)
  Model 31.000.95 (0.91 to 0.99)0.92 (0.88 to 0.96)0.86 (0.81 to 0.91)0.88 (0.84 to 0.93)<0.0010.97 (0.95 to 0.98)
MCE
  Cases56510332219513773
 Cases/PYs (1/1000)1.51.21.11.21.4
  Model 11.000.89 (0.80 to 0.99)0.86 (0.78 to 0.94)0.74 (0.65 to 0.84)0.75 (0.67 to 0.84)<0.0010.92 (0.89 to 0.95)
  Model 21.000.93 (0.84 to 1.04)0.93 (0.85 to 1.03)0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)0.85 (0.76 to 0.96)0.0010.95 (0.92 to 0.98)
  Model 31.000.93 (0.84 to 1.04)0.93 (0.85 to 1.03)0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)0.86 (0.76 to 0.97)0.0040.96 (0.93 to 0.99)
Haemorrhagic stroke
  Cases95315653080757723
 Cases/PYs (1/1000)2.51.91.61.71.3
  Model 11.000.80 (0.73 to 0.86)0.72 (0.67 to 0.78)0.64 (0.58 to 0.71)0.58 (0.52 to 0.64)<0.0010.86 (0.84 to 0.88)
  Model 21.000.86 (0.79 to 0.93)0.82 (0.76 to 0.88)0.76 (0.68 to 0.84)0.70 (0.63 to 0.78)<0.0010.91 (0.88 to 0.93)
  Model 31.000.86 (0.79 to 0.93)0.82 (0.76 to 0.88)0.77 (0.70 to 0.86)0.74 (0.67 to 0.82)<0.0010.92 (0.90 to 0.95)
Ischaemic stroke
  Cases2840551412 62026134158
 Cases/PYs (1/1000)7.66.76.56.07.7
  Model 11.000.95 (0.91 to 0.99)0.91 (0.87 to 0.95)0.88 (0.83 to 0.93)0.81 (0.77 to 0.86)<0.0010.94 (0.93 to 0.96)
  Model 21.000.98 (0.94 to 1.03)0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)0.94 (0.89 to 0.99)0.88 (0.84 to 0.93)<0.0010.96 (0.95 to 0.98)
  Model 31.000.98 (0.94 to 1.03)0.95 (0.91 to 1.00)0.95 (0.90 to 1.00)0.90 (0.85 to 0.95)<0.0010.97 (0.96 to 0.98)
  • Stratified Cox proportional models were used with stratification on survey site and birth cohort (in 5-year intervals). Multivariate models were adjusted for: model 1: age at recruitment (continuous) and sex (men or women); model 2: additionally included education level (no formal school, primary school, middle school, high school, college, or university or higher), household income (<2500, 2500–4999, 5000–9999, 10 000–19,999, 20 000–34 999, or ≥35 000 yuan/year), marital status (married, widowed, divorced or separated, or never married), alcohol consumption (not weekly; ex-regular; not daily; daily consuming 1–15, 15–29, 30–59, or ≥60 g), tobacco smoking (never or occasional; former; current smoking with 1–14, 15–24, or ≥25 cigarettes/day), physical activity in MET-hours/day (continuous), BMI (continuous), waist to hip ratio (continuous), prevalent hypertension (presence or absence), use of aspirin (presence, absence, or unknown), family history of CVD (presence or absence); model 3: additionally included intake of multivitamin supplementation (presence or absence) and dietary pattern (new affluence, traditional northern, or traditional southern).

  • *Tests for linear trend were conducted by assigning 0, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0, 7.0 to the frequency levels from the lowest to the highest and treating the variable as a continuous variable in the Cox models.

  • †HR for each one egg increment per week were calculated by using the usual amount in the multivariate Cox models.

  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HR, hazard ratios; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; MCE, major coronary events; MET,  metabolic equivalent task; PY, person-years.