Table 2

Baseline demographics and clinical variables

RepairMechanicalBioprostheticP value
n=294n=1134n=303OverallRepair versus mechanicalRepair versus bioprosthetic
Demographics
 Age (years)43.9±13.952.4±10.360.2±13.2<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Female gender, n (%)224 (76.2)752 (66.3)214 (70.6)0.0040.0020.015
 MV diagnosis, n (%)<0.001<0.001<0.001
  Predominant mitral regurgitation181 (61.6)177 (15.6)74 (24.4)
  Predominant mitral stenosis71 (24.1)556 (49.0)111 (36.6)
  Combined42 (14.3)401 (35.4)118 (38.9)
 Haemoglobin (g/dL)12.7±1.813.1±1.912.8±1.90.760.0010.72
 Glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2)88.0±25.782.1±23.077.1±22.8<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%)167 (56.8)842 (74.3)238 (78.5)<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)29 (9.9)105 (9.3)51 (16.8)0.0010.840.02
 Hypertension, n (%)54 (18.4)203 (18.3)75 (24.8)0.04>0.990.07
 ESRD, n (%)4 (1.4)13 (1.1)7 (2.3)0.31>0.990.58
 COPD, n (%)1.6 (2.0)24 (2.1)10 (3.3)0.45>0.990.48
 Dyslipidaemia, n (%)5 (1.7)43 (3.8)10 (3.3)0.210.110.32
 PAOD, n (%)0 (0.0)2 (0.2)0 (0.0)0.59>0.990.71
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%)8 (2.7)29 (2.6)8 (2.6)0.99>0.99>0.99
 Previous mitral valvotomy, n (%)1 (0.3)49 (4.3)17 (5.6)0.0020.002<0.001
 Mitral regurgitation grade, n (%)<0.001<0.001<0.001
  None41 (13.9)304 (26.8)77 (25.4)
   Mild44 (15.0)405 (35.7)94 (31.0)
  Moderate37 (12.6)130 (11.5)33 (10.9)
  Severe172 (58.5)295 (26.0)99 (32.7)
 Trans-MV pressure gradient (mm Hg)
   Mean7.8±3.310.5±5.19.8±5.3<0.001<0.001<0.001
  Maximal16.2±5.420.1±8.119.1±8.3<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Severe TR, n (%)78 (26.5)425 (37.5)145 (47.9)<0.0010.001<0.001
 Systolic PAP >50 mm Hg, n (%)28 (9.5)209 (18.4)51 (16.8)0.001<0.0010.01
 LV diastolic dimension >60 mm, n (%)30 (10.2)38 (3.4)1 (0.3)<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Left atrial dimension >60 mm, n (%)99 (33.7)411 (36.2)108 (35.6)0.720.450.68
 LV ejection fraction <50%, n (%)68 (23.1)282 (24.9)83 (27.4)0.480.590.27
 Mitral valve area <1 cm2, n (%)16 (5.4)304 (26.8)74 (24.4)<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Left atrial thrombi (%)20 (6.8)186 (16.4)43 (14.2)<0.001<0.0010.005
 Combined operation
  Tricuspid valve plasty, n (%)99 (33.7)467 (41.2)155 (51.2)<0.0010.02<0.001
  Aortic valve replacement, n (%)51 (17.3)410 (36.2)84 (27.7)<0.001<0.0010.003
  CABG, n (%)6 (2.0)38 (3.4)22 (7.3)0.0020.330.005
  Maze procedure, n (%)116 (39.5)465 (41.0)149 (49.2)0.0220.680.021
  Aortic procedures, n (%)29 (9.9)22 (1.9)4 (1.3)<0.001<0.001<0.001
  • CABG, coronary arterial bypass surgery; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; LV, left ventricular; MV, mitral valve; PAOD, peripheral arterial obstructive disease; PAP, pulmonary arterial pressure; TR, tricuspid regurgitation.