Table 2

Study population characteristics by year

CharacteristicYear
2002
(n=803, 7.1 %)
2003
(n=1020, 9.1 %)
2004
(n=984, 8.8 %)
2005
(n=942, 8.4 %)
2006
(n=921,  8.2 %)
2007
(n=1124  100.0 %)
2008
(n=1997, 17.8 %)
2009
(n=1875, 16.7 %)
2010
(n=1573, 14.0 %)
Total
(n=11 239)
Study site
 Baylor*743 (92.5%)680 (66.6%)518 (52.6%)486 (51.6%)442 (47.9%)562 (50.0%)694 (34.8%)661 (35.2%)640 (40.7%) 5426 (48.3%)
 EmoryNANANANANA117 (10.4)837 (41.9)772 (41.2)572 (36.4) 2300 (20.5)
 University of Virginia60 (7.5%)269 (26.4%)261 (26.5%)271 (28.8%)301 (32.7%)245 (21.8%)224 (11.2%)199 (10.6%)209 (13.3%) 2039 (18.1%)
 Washington UniversityNA71 (7.0%)205 (20.8%)185 (19.6%)178 (19.3%)200 (17.8%)242 (12.1%)243 (13.0%)152 (9.7%) 1476 (13.1%)
Age (years)†63.7±10.563.3±10.463.0±10.763.1±11.163.3±10.963.3±10.962.8±10.663.1±10.663.1±10.4 63.1±10.6
Body mass index (kg/m2)†29.2±6.329.2±5.929.3±5.929.5±5.829.5±5.629.3±5.729.5±6.529.7±5.929.7±7.1 29.5±6.2
Male73.4%71.7% 73.7% 74.6% 71.8% 75.6% 73.8% 72.4% 73.1%
Female26.6%28.3% 26.3% 25.4% 28.2% 25.4% 26.2% 27.6% 26.9% 26.8%
Race
 White83.3% 82.6% 82.2% 82.3% 84.6% 80.5% 78.5% 75.8% 75.4% 79.7%
 Black8.6% 8.8% 11.1% 10.2% 8.3% 11.0% 15.0% 16.4% 16.2% 12.7%
 Hispanic4.7% 4.8% 4.2% 4.2% 4.9% 4.5% 2.7% 2.8 % 3.6% 3.8%
 Asian1.2% 1.5% 0.8% 1.0% 0.4% 1.4% 1.5% 3.5% 2.5% 1.8%
 Other2.2% 2.3% 1.7% 2.3% 1.8% 2.6% 2.3% 1.5% 2.3% 2.0%
Diabetes mellitus34.9% 38.4% 36.9% 40.0% 38.6% 41.6% 40.4% 42.0% 45.2% 40.4%
Renal failure2.63.5% 3.5% 1.5% 2.6% 2.7% 2.6% 3.1% 3.7% 2.9%
Creatinine (mg/dL)†1.2±1.21.2±1.31.3±1.31.2±1.01.2±1.01.2±1.11.2±1.11.2±1.21.3±1.3 1.2±1.2
Chronic lung disease14.3% 15.6% 19.0% 22.3% 20.3% 20.1% 21.8% 20.4% 20.6% 19.8%
Systemic hypertension74.9% 78.9% 81.3% 81.9% 82.5% 84.6% 87.4% 89.3% 90.5% 84.8%
Peripheral vascular disease17.9% 18.8% 16.9% 20.0% 24.6% 18.1% 18.3% 19.5% 18.9% 19.1%
Cerebrovascular disease14.6% 17.5% 16.5% 17.0% 15.2% 16.9% 16.1% 18.8% 17.6% 16.9%
Current smoker27.9% 26.3% 28.2% 28.8% 28.8% 30.7% 28.1% 27.2% 26.1% 27.9%
Time from last myocardial infarction to surgery (hours)
 None51.4% 55.2% 55.2% 53.6% 57.6% 53.1% 55.9% 53.3% 52.9% 54.3%
 ≤60.5% 0.7% 1.3% 1.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8%
 >6 but <241.5% 3.8% 3.7% 2.1% 1.7% 2.4% 1.7% 2.1% 2.1% 2.3%
 ≥2446.6% 40.3% % 39.8% 42.9% 39.9% 43.8% 41.7% 43.8% 44.2% 42.6%
Previous PCI26.2% 26.4% 23.3% 25.1% 27.0% 29.8% 29.5% 30.9% 32.3% 28.6%
Previous coronary bypass7.0% 5.6% 5.6% 6.2% 4.6% 5.1% 4.0% 3.5% 3.8% 4.9%
Previous valve surgery/procedure2.6% 2.9% 2.4% 3.0% 2.1% 2.7% 2.8% 3.8% 2.9% 2.9%
Preoperative angina pectoris74.4% 69.9% 69.771.765.463.961.8% 60.9% 60.3% 65.0%
Congestive heart failure18.1% 18.6% 23.4% 35.9% 27.9% 22.0% 21.5% 19.0% 21.3% 22.5%
Preoperative ejection fraction (%)†47.4±14.248.2±13.947.4±13.348.6±13.548.2±14.049.8±13.749.8±13.249.7±13.150.6±12.9 49.2±13.4
Left main disease25.2% 22.4% 22.5% 21.9% 20. 1% 24.5% 26.1% 27.7% 27.5% 24.8%
Preoperative IABP26.1% 15.0% 15.1% 15.3% 15.6% 11.7% 12.6% 10.3% 9.9% 13.6%
Operation
 Elective81.3% 69.2% 75.2% 63.6% 52.6% 58.6% 56.5% 53.4% 52.6% 60.5%
 On-pump95.7% 77.9% 72.1% 84.5% 91.7% 71.1% 48.3% 45.9% 55.3% 71.2%
  • *Two Baylor sites participated in the study: one academic medical centre and one high-volume specialty cardiac hospital.

  • †Mean ±SD.

  • IABP, intra aortic balloon pump; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.

  • Bold values  represent the overall totals combining all study years (i.e. the cumulative totals of columns 2002-2010) .