Table 2

Validation criteria for four CV biomarkers

Validation criteriaInducible ischaemiaLDL cholesterolHDL cholesterolHomocysteine
1. Prognostic value: does biomarker correlate with adverse CV outcomes?+++++++++++
2. Biological plausibility: is biomarker on the causal pathway for adverse CV outcomes?+/−++++
3. Treatment effects: do changes in biomarker produce similar changes in the outcome?+/−+++
  • All show strong correlation with adverse CV outcomes (myocardial infarction and coronary death), but only LDL cholesterol meets the validity criteria as a surrogate of CV risk.

  • CV, cardiovascular; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.