Table 1

High-dimensional and high-throughput molecular profiling experiments that require statistical and machine learning approaches for biological and clinical analyses and inferences

Biomolecular profiling technologiesDefinitionExample in cardiovascular medicinePMID
EpigenomicsCataloguing the epigenetic modifications of genomeEmerging role of DNA methylation, histone density and post-translational modifications in the setting of cardiovascular diseases25408699
GenomicsAssessing all genomic variations in an individual in the setting of a disease, response to therapy, characterising rare diseases or for molecular subtyping of common diseasesGenome-wide association studies of peripheral artery disease reveal ATXN2-SH2B3 locus.25009551
GlycomicsSubtheme of metabolomics that aim to characterise the glycan moleculesRegulation of cardiac mitochondrial function using O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation)26446791
ImmunomicsFlow cytometry-based phenotyping of immune and inflammation markersRole of immune cell types including natural killer T (NKT) cells in promoting atherosclerosis28127028
LipidomicsSubtheme of metabolomics that aim to characterise the lipid moleculesMolecular lipid species (triacylglycerols, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylethanolamines) associated with cardiovascular diseases24622385
MetabolomicsStudy of the metabolites (targeted and untargeted) and their regulation due to diseases and other perturbationsMetabolite biomarkers improve the predictive value of Framingham Risk Score.28255100
MetagenomicsGenomics of the environmentMetagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing revealed microbial species in the setting of endocarditis.24485222
MicrobiomeAssess the microbial dysbiosis in the gut microbiome in the setting of a disease and treatmentIntestinal microbiota and metabolism of L-carnitine accelerates atherosclerosis in mouse.23563705
PhenomicsAssessing phenotypes and impact of phenotypes due to perturbations at scale; where a phenotyping could be contextual (cellular, tissue, whole body or electronically derived)A phenome-wide association study using variants influencing platelet traits is associated with myocardial infarction.24026423
ProteomicsEstimating the list of proteins (targeted or untargeted) and their differential expression in the setting of a disease, therapy or other experimental conditionsUrinary proteome as a biomarker in coronary artery disease20811296
TranscriptomicsAssessing the global gene expression signature in the setting of a particular disease or therapeutic interventionDifferential expression analyses of genes in the setting of high-dose statin therapy27989886
  • PMID refers to the unique identifier number used in PubMed.