Table 2

Open access biomedical and healthcare ontologies and big data resources in cardiovascular medicine for developing machine learning resources

Cardiac Electrophysiology Ontology (EP)Ontology describing electrophysiological experiments in cardiology (232 terms)
Cardiovascular Disease Ontology (CVDO)An ontology to describe entities related to cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular Gene Ontology (CVGO)Cardiovascular disease genes and their annotations (4000 human proteins)
ClinicalTrials.govDatabase of public and private clinical trials with 3165 cardiology studies
Congenital Heart Defects OntologyOntology describing congenital heart defects data
database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP)Compendium of genome-phenome data sets (155 540 variables, 6935 analyses, 2892 documents and 1878 data sets in 167 studies)
Electrocardiography Ontology (ECG)Ontology describing ECGs, their capture method(s) and their waveforms
Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) Catalog430 studies, 3214 associations and 252 catalogue traits
Heart Failure Ontology (HFO)Ontology describing heart failure-relevant information including the causes and risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests and results, and treatment
NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP)Genes and variants contributing to heart, lung and blood disorders (6503 samples)
Ontology of Cardiovascular Drug Adverse Events (OCVDAE)Ontology of cardiovascular disease drug-associated adverse events (2948 terms)
Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) CatalogCatalogue of phenome-wide associations from multiple studies