Table 1

Study overview

StudyPopulationSettingInterventionComparatorOutcomesTime horizon
Comparing CR with no CR
 Georgiou et al, 200121 Stable chronic heart failureOutpatient care in the USALong-term moderate exercise trainingNo exercise trainingLYG15.5 years
 Briffa et al, 200530 Patients who had had an uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction or recovered from unstable anginaTertiary hospital care in AustraliaComprehensive CR plus usual careNo CRQALYs12 months
 Huang et al, 200822 Patients with end-stage renal disease who initiated chronic haemodialysis and underwent CABGOutpatient care in USACRNo CRLYG4 years
 Oldridge et al, 200823 Myocardial infarction with anxiety and depressionOutpatient care in the USACRNo CRQALYs12 months
 Leggett et al, 201534 Patients undergoing a cardiac catheterisation for myocardial infarction or stable or unstable anginaOutpatient care in CanadaCentre-based outpatient CR programmeNo CRQALYsLifetime
 Rincón et al, 201635 Chronic heart failureOutpatient care in ColumbiaExercise-based CR plus UCUC (no CR programme)QALYs and LYG5 years
 De Gruyter et al, 201636 Myocardial infarctionOutpatient care in AustraliaCR (uptake of 50% and 65%)CR (uptake of 30%)DALYs10 years
Comparing exercise components of CR with education
 Yu et al, 200431 Patients with recent myocardial infarction or percutaneous coronary interventionOutpatient care in Hong KongCR and prevention programme (exercise and education)UC (education only)QALYs2 years
 Reed et al, 201024 Medically stable outpatients with heart failure and reduced ejection fractionOutpatient care in the USAExercise training plus UCUC (education only)QALYs2.5 years
 Kühr et al, 201137 Clinically stable heart failureOutpatient care in BrazilSupervised exercise therapy alongside standard careStandard careQALYs and LYG10 years
Comparing telehealth interventions with CR based in a healthcare centre
 Cheng et al, 201638 Patients with cardiac disease who were referred to but did not attend a rehabilitation programmeHome-based care in AustraliaFour pedometer-based telephone coaching sessions on weight, nutrition and physical activityTwo pedometer-based telephone coaching sessions on physical activity alone or information onlyQALYs30 years
 Maddison et al, 201525 Ischaemic heart diseaseCommunity care in New ZealandHeart exercise and remote technologies mobile phone intervention plus UCUC (exercise and cardiac support group)QALYs24 weeks
 Frederix et al, 201632 Coronary artery disease,  percutaneous coronary intervention or with CABG or chronic heart failureOutpatient care in BelgiumCardiac telerehabilitation programme in addition to conventional centre-based CRCentre-based CR programmeQALYs24 weeks
 Kidholm et al, 201626 Artery sclerosis, CABG, valve surgery or heart failureOutpatient care in DenmarkICT delivered individualised cardiac telerehabilitation programmeTraditional rehabilitation programme at the hospital or healthcare centreQALYs12 months
Comparing distribution of CR programmes
 Papadakis et al, 200833 Coronary artery diseaseOutpatient care in CanadaCR programme distributed over 12 monthsStandard CR over 3 monthsQALYs24 months
Comparing care settings of CR programmes
 Taylor et al, 200727 Uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (without major comorbidity)Home-based or outpatient care in the UKHome-based CRHospital-based rehabilitationQALYs9 months
 Schweikert et al, 200928 Patients with an acute coronary event such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-STEMI or unstable anginaInpatient or outpatient care in GermanyOutpatient CRInpatient CRQALYs12 months
Comparing psychological intervention with UC
 Lewin et al, 200940 Heart disease patients undergoing implantation of a cardiac defibrillatorOutpatient care in the UKHome-based cognitive–behavioural programmeUC (information booklet)QALYs6 months
 Dehbarez et al, 201529 Ischaemic heart disease and heart failureOutpatient care in DenmarkLearning and coping education strategiesUC (standard CR)QALYs5 months
  • CR, cardiac rehabilitation; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; DALYs, disability adjusted life-years; ICT, information and communication technology; LYG, life-years gained; QALYs, quality-adjusted life-years; STEMI, ST-elevation myocardial infarction; UC, usual care.