Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of the study sample (n=479 054)

Mean (SD) or N (%)
Age (years)56.35 (8.1)
Sex
 Women265 702 (55 %)
 Men213 352 (45 %)
Ethnicity
 Non-white25 359 (5 %)
 White453 695 (95 %)
Deprivation Index−1.29 (3.1)
Education
 No secondary education78 454 (17 %)
 Secondary education236 092 (50 %)
 University degree156 466 (33 %)
Household income
 Less than £31 00089 912 (22 %)
 £18 000 to £29 999103 504 (25 %)
 £30 000 to £51 999107 700 (26 %)
 £52 000 to £100 00084 590 (21 %)
 Greater than £100 00022 557 (6 %)
Chronic illness
 No237 287 (51 %)
 Yes227 494 (49 %)
Social isolation
 No427 709 (91 %)
 Yes42 595 (9 %)
Loneliness
 No428 722 (94 %)
 Yes28 513 (6 %)
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.35 (4.75)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)82.3 (10.12)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)137.81 (18.65)
Handgrip strength (kg)30.55 (11.01)
Smoker
 No427 738 (90 %)
 Yes49 646 (10 %)
Ex-smoker
 No314 466 (66 %)
 Yes162 918 (34 %)
Alcohol consumption
 Twice or less per week269 812 (56 %)
 At least three times per week208 893 (44 %)
Moderate physical activity*3.59 (2.33)
Vigorous physical activity*1.87 (1.95)
Depressed mood (range 1–4)1.29 (0.6)
Unenthusiasm/disinterest (range 1– 4)1.27 (0.6)
Tenseness/restlessness (range 1–4)1.31 (0.6)
Tiredness/lethargy (range 1–4)1.68 (0.81)
  • Due to missing data in covariates, frequencies may not add up to the total number of participants.

  • *Number of days per week of physical activity lasting more than 10 min.