Table 1

Study design and participant characteristics

Study IDStudy design; country; designTotal participantsMean age% maleInclusion criteria
Akimova 201435 Prospective cohort study; Russia; 1996–2008160949.4Participants were Tyumen citizens aged 25–64 years
Andersen 201111 Prospective cohort study; Denmark; 2000–200726 81871.251.5Participants were patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke admission aged 18 and above in the Danish National Indicator Project
Bell 201326 Post-hoc analysis of trial and cohort study; USA; 1993–20103173Mean age at stroke was 72.60Participants were post-menopausal women aged 50–79, who were stroke-free at baseline with incident stroke before 2005 in the Women’s Health Initiative trial
Consuegra-Sanchez 20156 Prospective cohort study; Spain; 1998–2013740866.173.3Participants were patients with acute MI aged 18 and above who were admitted to the coronary care units of two hospitals in the Murcia region within 24 hours
Dupre 201519 Prospective cohort study; USA; 1992–201015 82754.345.9Participants were ever married adults aged 45–80 years in the Health and Retirement Study
Dupre 20130 Prospective cohort study; USA; 1992–2010219769.555.1Participants had MI during the follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study
Eaker 200727 Prospective cohort study; USA; 1971–1987368248.548.1Participants were in the Framingham Offspring Study, consisting of the offspring (and their spouses) of the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort, enrolled in 1971 to 1974
Engstrom 200014 Prospective cohort study; Sweden; 1977–1994935148.50Participants were women aged 28–55 years who attended the health examination programme at the Department of Preventive Medicine in Malmo
Engstrom 200428 Prospective cohort study; Sweden; 1990–20001 18 1346044.8Participants were individuals aged between 40–89 years in Malmo, Sweden
Engstrom 200620 Prospective cohort study; Sweden; 1974–1997607546.8100Participants were men without history of MI, stroke or cancer aged 28–61 years in Malmo, Sweden
Floud 201413 Prospective study; UK; 1996–20117 34 62659.70Participants were women without history of heart disease or stroke in the Million Women Study
Gerward 20107 Prospective cohort study; Sweden; 1974–2004354285.7Participants were individuals aged 27–61 years without history of MI in the Malmo Preventive Project
Ghosh-Swaby 201638 Prospective cohort study; Canada; published in 20162100Participants had PCI after MI in the Canadian Observational Antiplatelet Study
Golbourt 201036 Prospective cohort study; Israel; 1963–199710 05949.2100Participants were male civil servants and municipal employees in the Israeli Ischaemic Heart Disease study
Hadi 20128 Prospective cohort study; Gulf States; 2008–2009533456.879.0Participants were post-ACS patients in the second Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events
Ikeda 200917 Prospective cohort study; Japan; 1990–200490 98751.947.7Participants were Japan residents aged 40–69 years in the first and second cohort of the Japan Public health Centre-based Prospective Study
Janzon 200424 Prospective cohort study; Sweden; 1977–199810 62149.60Participants were women without history of MI or stroke aged between 28–58 in Malmo, Sweden
Jayaram 201339 Prospective cohort study; US; 2003–2008485350 to 8066.7Participants were post-acute MI patients aged 50 to 80 years from 31 USA sites.
Kilpi 201516 Prospective cohort study; Finland; 1987–20072 99 28149.4Participants were individuals aged above 15 years in Finland
Kriegbaum 200815 Prospective cohort study; Denmark; 1980–2005886528 to 39100Participants were men born in Copenhagen in 1953 and living in Denmark in 1968
Malyutina 200418 Prospective cohort study; Russia; 1984–199811 40425 to 6456.9Participants were residents in Novosibirsk aged 25–64 years in the WHO MONICA Project
Maselko 200931 Prospective cohort study; USA; 1992–200622 81863.956Participants were individuals born between 1900–1947 aged 50 years or above without history of stroke in the Health and Retirement Study
Matthews 200229 Post-hoc analysis of clinical trial; USA; published in 200210 90446.4100Participants were men without definite evidence of clinical CHD but with above-average risk for death due to CHD because of high blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol levels, and/or cigarette smoking in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial
Orth-Gomer 200032 Prospective cohort study; Sweden; 1991–199729255.80Participants were female acute MI or unstable angina patients aged 30–65 years in the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study
Panagiotakos 20083 Prospective cohort study; Greece; 2003–2004209066.775.9Participants were patients hospitalised with ACS in the GREECS study
Quinones 201433 Prospective cohort study; Germany; 2000–2010376628 to 7475.4Participants were patients with first episode of MI in Germany who survived longer than 28 days in the MONICA/KORA-myocardial infarction registry
Samanci 200412 Prospective cohort study; Turkey; 1995–200114762.653Participants were patients with first ischaemic stroke aged 18 and above who were admitted to Akdeniz University Hospital
Schultz 201734 Prospective cohort study; USA; 2003–201560516364Participants were patients who underwent cardiac catheterisation for suspected or known coronary artery disease in the Emory Cardiovascular Biobank
Sorlie 200425 Prospective cohort study; USA; 1973–1989Approximately 7 00 000≥25Participants were individuals aged 25 and above in the US National Longitudinal Mortality Study
Strand 200437 Prospective cohort study; Norway; 1974–200044 6844250.8Participants were individuals without history of heart disease aged 35 to 49 years in Norway
Vujcic 20149 Prospective cohort study; Belgrade; 2002–201113557.875.6Participants were patients admitted to the coronary care unit of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia due to MI
Wolinsky 200940 Prospective cohort study; USA; 1993–200555117738Participants were individuals aged 70 and above in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old
Xie 20162 Prospective cohort study; China; 2002–2012173957.735.8Participants were individuals from 11 villages in Beijing drawn from the original cohort of the People’s Republic of China-United States of America Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Epidemiology
Yokoyama 201410 Prospective cohort study; Japan; Published in 201435463100Participants were men who had acute MI
  • ACS, acute coronary syndrome; CHD, coronary heart disease; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.