Table 2

Follow-up and results

Study IDPopulationFollow-upResults
Akimova 201435 General population12 yearsCV mortality in men vs married: lonely aOR 4.08 (2.17 to 7.80) vs widowed aOR 3.19 (1.22 to 8.34) vs divorced aOR 3.18 (1.90 to 5.34). CV mortality in women vs married: lonely aOR 0.17 (0.01 to 1.09) vs widowed aOR 0.37 (0.10 to 1.04) vs divorced aOR 0.17 (0.03 to 0.84). CV mortality in men vs not married: married aOR 0.28 (0.18 to 0.44). CV mortality in women compared with not married: married aOR 3.21 (1.28 to 8.06)
Andersen 201111 Post-ischaemic stroke30 day and 1 yearAll-cause mortality for single vs living with someone: 30 day mortality OR 1.02 (0.78 to 1.35), 1 year OR 1.14 (0.96 to 1.34)
Bell 201326 Post-stroke12–17 yearsMortality in not married vs married: aHR 0.95 (0.77 to 1.16)
Consuegra-Sanchez 20156 Post-MIMedian 6.1 years.All-cause mortality in widowed vs married: aHR 1.29 (1.13 to 1.47). All-cause mortality in single vs married: aHR 1.04 (0.79 to 1.35). All-cause mortality in divorced vs married: aHR 0.84 (0.43 to 1.38)
Dupre 201519 General population18 yearsAcute MI in men vs continuously married: divorced aHR 1.27 (0.98 to 1.65), remarried aHR 1.13 (0.96 to 1.34). Acute MI in women compared with continuously married: divorced aHR 1.36 (1.04 to 1.78), remarried aHR 1.35 (1.07 to 1.70)
Dupre 201630 Post-MI18 yearsCrude results only see online supplements
Eaker 200727 General population10 years.Incident CHD in men in married vs not married: aRR 0.92 (0.51 to 1.65). Incident CHD in women in married vs not married: aRR 0.85 (0.43 to 1.70). Mortality in men in married vs not married: aRR 0.54 (0.35 to 0.83). Mortality in women in married vs not married: aRR 1.04 (0.62 to 1.74)
Engstrom 200014 General population10.7 yearsCardiac events in single vs married: aHR 1.05 (0.69 to 1.6)
Engstrom 200428 General population>10 yearsStroke incidence in men vs married: divorced aRR 1.29 (1.15 to 1.44), widowed aRR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.28), never married aRR 0.89 (0.77 to 1.02). Stroke incidence in women vs married: divorced aRR 1.22 (1.09 to 1.37), widowed aRR 1.13 (1.02 to 1.24), never married has no result
Engstrom 200620 General population18.7 yearsCoronary events vs married: never married aRR 1.29 (1.00 to 1.7), divorced aRR 1.51 (1.2 to 1.9), widowed aRR 1.78 (0.94 to 3.3). Stroke vs married: never married aRR 1.25 (0.8 to 1.9), divorced aRR 1.44 (0.98 to 2.1), widowed aRR 1.18 (0.3 to 4.8)
Floud 201413 General population8.8 yearsIHD in partnered vs not partnered women: aRR 0.99 (0.96 to 1.02). IHD mortality in partnered vs not partnered women: aRR 0.72 (0.66 to 0.80)
Gerward 20107 Post-coronary event21 yearsMortality post coronary event in men vs married: never married aOR 2.14 (1.63 to 2.81), divorced aOR 1.91 (1.50 to 2.43), widowed aOR 1.49 (0.77 to 2.89). Mortality post coronary event in women vs married: never married aOR 2.32 (0.93 to 5.81), divorced aOR 1.87 (1.04 to 3.36), widowed aOR 2.74 (1.03 to 7.28).
Ghosh-Swaby 201638 Post-MI15 monthsMortality vs married/common law and living together: never married aOR 1.09 (0.30 to 3.91), separated/divorced/widowed aOR 0.64 (0.24 to 1.68). MACE vs married/common law and living together: never married aOR 1.31 (0.79 to 2.16), separated/divorced/widowed aOR 0.77 (0.50 to 1.23). MI vs married/common law and living together: never married aOR 1.51 (0.68 to 3.38), separated/divorced/widowed aOR 1.02 (0.49 to 2.16). Stroke vs married/common law and living together: never married aOR 4.06 (0.91 to 18.14), separated/divorced/widowed aOR 0.60 (0.10 to 3.49)
Golbourt 201036 Male working adults34 yearsFatal stroke in unmarried vs married men: aHR 1.64 (1.18 to 2.30)
Hadi 20128 Post-ACS1 yearIn-hospital mortality vs married: single aOR 1.35 (0.46 to 3.99), widowed aOR 1.97 (1.23 to 3.18)
Ikeda 200917 General populationMedian 11 yearsCHD in men for alone vs spouse: aHR 1.23 (0.74 to 2.02). CHD mortality in men for alone vs spouse: aHR 1.43 (0.73 to 2.81). All-cause mortality in men for alone vs spouse: aHR 1.47 (1.26 to 1.72). CHD in women for alone vs spouse: aHR 1.77 (0.92 to 3.39). CHD mortality in women for alone vs spouse: aHR 2.72 (1.37 to 5.38). All-cause mortality in women for alone vs spouse: aHR 1.09 (0.92 to 1.31)
Janzon 200424 General population14 yearsCardiac events in women not married vs married never smoked: never smoked aRR 0.8 (0.4 to 1.7), ex-smoker aRR 1.5 (0.7 to 3.3) and current smokers aRR 5.0 (3.3 to 7.6). Cardiac events in women married vs married never smoked: ex-smoker aRR 1.4 (0.8 to 2.4), current smoker aRR 4.7 (3.2 to 6.9)
Jayaram 201339 Post-MI2 yearsCrude results only see online supplements
Kilpi 201516 General population12 yearsMI events vs marital partner in men: cohabitation aHR 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), living with others aHR 1.10 (0.99 to 1.21), living alone aHR 1.18 (1.08 to 1.28). MI events vs marital partner in women: cohabitation aHR 1.08 (0.85 to 1.37), living with others aHR 1.19 (0.97 to 1.45), living alone aHR 1.16 (0.99 to 1.36). Mortality in MI vs marital partner in men: cohabitation aHR 1.07 (0.86 to 1.33), living with others aHR 1.80 (1.46 to 2.23), living alone aHR 1.50 (1.29 to 1.75). Mortality in MI vs marital partner in women: cohabitation aHR 2.00 (1.26 to 3.17), living with others aHR 1.11 (0.75 to 1.64), living alone aHR 1.06 (0.80 to 1.40)
Kriegbaum 200815 General population12 yearsIHD in men vs cohabitant: never cohabitant aHR 0.89 (0.62 to 1.30), broken partnership aHR 1.28 (1.03 to 1.58)
Malyutina 200418 General population.10.3 years.All-cause mortality in men vs married: non-married aRR 1.28 (1.00 to 1.64), single aRR 1.36 (0.87 to 2.11), divorced aRR 1.43 (1.02 to 2.00), widowed aRR 0.87 (0.50 to 1.52). CVD mortality in men vs married: non-married aRR 1.22 (0.84 to 1.77), single aRR 0.89 (0.38 to 2.01), divorced aRR 1.78 (1.13 to 2.82), widowed aRR 0.61 (0.25 to 1.50). CHD mortality in men vs married: non-married aRR 1.20 (0.74 to 1.95), single aRR 0.62 (0.19 to 1.99), divorced aRR 1.84 (1.04 to 3.26), widowed aRR 0.77 (0.24 to 2.44). Stroke mortality in men vs married: non-married aRR 1.19 (0.56 to 2.49), single aRR 0.81 (0.11 to 5.85), divorced aRR 2.40 (1.03 to 5.58). All-cause mortality in women vs married: non-married aRR 1.37 (0.92 to 2.04), single aRR 0.99 (0.31 to 3.18), divorced aRR 1.86 (1.07 to 3.24), widowed aRR 1.16 (0.70 to 1.93). CVD mortality in women vs married: non-married aRR 1.15 (0.67 to 1.97), single aRR 0.62 (0.08 to 4.59), divorced aRR 1.41 (0.63 to 3.18), widowed aRR 1.05 (0.54 to 2.04). CHD mortality in women vs married: non-married aRR 1.14 (0.55 to 2.39), single aRR 1.25 (0.16 to 9.55), divorced aRR 1.44 (0.49 to 4.26), widowed aRR 1.00 (0.40 to 2.50). Stroke mortality in women vs married: non-married aRR 1.52 (0.53 to 4.33), divorced aRR 2.11 (0.45 to 9.82), widowed aRR 1.44 (0.42 to 4.90)
Maselko 200931 General population9.4 yearsIncident stroke in men vs married: divorced/separated aHR 1.01 (0.79 to 1.29), never married aHR 1.15 (0.80 to 1.67), widowed aHR 1.23 (0.99 to 1.53). Incident stroke in women vs married: divorced/separated aHR 0.95 (0.77 to 1.16), never married aHR 1.27 (0.95 to 1.69), widowed aHR 1.11 (0.97 to 1.28).
Matthews 200229 General population9 yearsMortality vs married: separated aRR 1.24 (0.98 to 1.57), divorced aRR 1.37 (1.09 to 1.72). Cardiovascular mortality vs married: separated aRR 1.43 (1.05 to 1.96), divorced aRR 1.40 (1.01 to 1.92). CHD mortality vs married: separated aRR 1.02 (0.67 to 1.57), divorced aRR 1.66 (1.17 to 2.36). MI mortality compared with married: separated aRR 1.31 (0.76 to 2.26), divorced aRR 1.15 (0.64 to 2.06).
Orth-Gomer 200032 Post-ACS5 yearsCrude results only see online supplements
Panagiotakos 20083 Post-ACS30 daysMortality vs married: never married aOR 2.70 (1.82 to 3.99), widowed/divorced aOR 1.21 (0.42 to 3.53). CVD compared with married: never married aOR 1.07 (0.41 to 2.82), widowed/divorced aOR 1.21 (0.42 to 3.53)
Quinones 201433 Post-MIMedian 5.3 yearsMortality in married vs not married: aHR 0.83 (0.68 to 1.01)
Samanci 200412 Post-stoke1 yearMortality in single/widowed vs married: OR 2.03 (1.22 to 8.51)
Schultz 201734 Post-cardiac catheterisation or CHDMedian 3.7 yearsMortality vs married: unmarried aHR 1.14 (0.95 to 1.37), divorced aHR 1.23 (0.98 to 1.55), widowed aHR 1.24 (0.99 to 1.54). Cardiovascular death vs married: unmarried aHR 1.33 (1.06 to 1.68), divorced aHR 1.27 (0.95 to 1.69), widowed aHR 1.62 (1.23 to 2.13). Cardiovascular death and MI vs married: unmarried aHR 1.46 (1.22 to 1.76), divorced aHR 1.41 (1.10 to 1.81), widowed aHR 1.71 (1.32 to 2.20)
Sorlie 200425 General populationUp to 11 yearsOut-of-hospital all-cause death in not married vs married: aOR 1.33 (1.28 to 1.38). Out-of-hospital CHD death in not married vs married: aOR 1.60 (1.50 to 1.71)
Strand 200437 General population23.6 yearsIHD death in men vs married: not married aRR 1.28 (1.12 to 1.46), divorced/separated aRR 1.21 (0.84 to 1.76), widowed aRR 0.28 (0.07 to 1.14). IHD death in women vs married: not married aRR 1.33 (0.85 to 2.09), divorced/separated aRR 1.35 (0.69 to 2.63), widowed aRR 0.87 (0.43 to 1.76)
Vujcic 20149 Post-MIMedian 77 monthsMortality in others vs married: OR 2.38 (1.14 to 4.98). Mortality in living alone vs not alone: aOR 7.60 (1.99 to 29.08)
Wolinsky 200940 Elderly population12 yearsCrude results only see online supplements
Xie 20162 General population10 yearsCrude results only see online supplements
Yokoyama 201410 Post-MI1.7 yearsMortality unmarried vs married: aHR 3.84 (1.22 to 10.2).
  • ACS, acute coronary syndrome; aHR, adjusted hazard ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; aRR, adjusted relative risk; CHD, coronary heart disease; CV, cardiovascular; CVD, cardiovascular disease; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; MACE, major adverse cardiac events; MI , myocardial  infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.