Table 2

Baseline characteristics of SPACE participants

Baseline characteristicPolypill-based care
n=1569
Usual care
n=1571
Age, years (SD)62.3 (10.6)62.0 (10.9)
Female, n (%)398 (25)381 (24)
BP, mm Hg (SD)
 Systolic139.2 (20.8)139.8 (21.0)
 Diastolic79.0 (12.1)79.5 (11.9)
Lipid fractions, mmol/L (SD)
 Total cholesterol4.2 (1.0)4.3 (1.3)
 High-density lipoprotein cholesterol1.1 (0.3)1.1 (0.3)
 LDL cholesterol (derived)2.4 (0.9)2.4 (0.9)
 Triglycerides1.6 (1.1)1.6 (1.0)
 History of symptomatic cardiovascular disease, n (%)1192 (76)1204 (77)
 Coronary heart disease1021 (65)1025 (65)
 Cerebrovascular disease216 (14)231 (15)
 Peripheral vascular disease92 (6)70 (5)
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)581 (37)542 (35)
Treatment modalities, n (%)
 Statin1339 (85)1333 (85)
 Antiplatelet1359 (87)1360 (87)
 BP lowering1423 (91)1429 (91)
 All three1193 (76)1206 (77)
Use of all indicated*
medications, n (%)
833 (53)880 (56)
Achievement of European targets treatment targets, n (%)
 BP762 (49)729 (46)
 LDL559 (36)493 (31)
 Antiplatelet†1085 (69)1104 (70)
Physician-intended polypill version prior to randomisation (if patient randomised to polypill), n (%)
 Polypill 1‡852 (54)866 (55)
 Polypill 2‡717 (46)702 (45)
  • *Statin, antiplatelet and >2 BP-lowering medications; all were indicated according to the participant’s physician on trial entry.

  • †Antiplatelet target only applicable to people with established cardiovascular disease.

  • ‡Polypill 1: aspirin 75 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, lisinopril 10 mg, atenolol 50 mg; polypill 2: aspirin 75 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, lisinopril 10 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg.

  • BP, blood pressure; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SPACE, Single Pill to Avert Cardiovascular Events.