Table 2

Age-adjusted HRs and women-to-men ratio of HRs, with 95% CIs, of the association between individual risk factors and the risk of AF, by sex

WomenMenRatio of HRs
Personal
 Age2.69 (2.41 to 2.99)2.32 (2.11 to 2.54)1.16 (1.01 to 1.33)
 Years of education0.98 (0.88 to 1.08)1.00 (0.93 to 1.09)0.97 (0.86 to 1.11)
 Family history of CHD1.19 (0.98 to 1.44)1.30 (1.09 to 1.56)0.91 (0.70 to 1.19)
 SIMD-socioeconomic score1.16 (1.06 to 1.28)1.13 (1.04 to 1.23)1.03 (0.91 to 1.17)
 ASSIGN cardiovascular risk score1.29 (1.20 to 1.40)1.25 (1.16 to 1.34)1.04 (0.95 to 1.14)
Smoking
 Cigarette smoker1.24 (1.02 to 1.50)1.28 (1.09 to 1.51)0.97 (0.75 to 1.24)
 Cigs equivalent/day1.10 (0.98 to 1.23)1.16 (1.08 to 1.25)0.94 (0.83 to 1.08)
 Expired air CO1.12 (1.01 to 1.23)1.14 (1.06 to 1.23)0.98 (0.87 to 1.11)
 Thiocyanate1.09 (0.99 to 1.20)1.15 (1.06 to 1.26)0.95 (0.83 to 1.08)
 Cotinine1.14 (1.02 to 1.28)1.13 (1.05 to 1.23)1.01 (0.89 to 1.15)
Physical measurements
 Height1.37 (1.19 to 1.57)1.31 (1.18 to 1.47)1.04 (0.87 to 1.24)
 Weight1.39 (1.26 to 1.52)1.50 (1.37 to 1.63)0.93 (0.82 to 1.05)
 Body mass index1.23 (1.14 to 1.33)1.41 (1.29 to 1.54)0.87 (0.77 to 0.98)
 Waist circumference1.45 (1.30 to 1.62)1.53 (1.36 to 1.72)0.95 (0.82 to 1.09)
 Waist to hip ratio1.19 (0.92 to 1.54)1.19 (1.05 to 1.35)1.00 (0.77 to 1.30)
 Systolic BP1.26 (1.15 to 1.37)1.23 (1.14 to 1.32)1.02 (0.92 to 1.14)
 Diastolic BP1.21 (1.10 to 1.33)1.16 (1.07 to 1.25)1.05 (0.93 to 1.19)
 Pulse pressure1.37 (1.18 to 1.58)1.33 (1.17 to 1.52)1.03 (0.85 to 1.24)
 Pulse rate0.87 (0.79 to 0.96)0.97 (0.90 to 1.05)0.89 (0.79 to 1.02)
Diabetes mellitus
 Self-reported diabetes1.97 (1.08 to 3.59)1.28 (0.69 to 2.40)1.54 (0.65 to 3.65)
 Glucose (non-fasting)1.08 (0.99 to 1.18)1.07 (1.00 to 1.15)1.01 (0.90 to 1.12)
 Insulin (non-fasting)1.04 (0.94 to 1.15)1.06 (0.99 to 1.14)0.98 (0.87 to 1.10)
 C-peptide1.06 (0.94 to 1.20)1.01 (0.92 to 1.12)1.05 (0.90 to 1.22)
Lipids
 Total cholesterol0.98 (0.89 to 1.08)0.96 (0.87 to 1.07)1.02 (0.88 to 1.18)
 HDL cholesterol0.85 (0.76 to 0.95)0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)0.93 (0.81 to 1.08)
 LDL cholesterol1.01 (0.90 to 1.12)1.02 (0.94 to 1.11)0.99 (0.86 to 1.13)
 Triglycerides1.11 (1.00 to 1.23)1.04 (0.95 to 1.14)1.06 (0.93 to 1.23)
 Apolipoprotein A0.90 (0.79 to 1.04)0.97 (0.88 to 1.06)0.93 (0.79 to 1.10)
 Apolipoprotein B1.06 (0.97 to 1.17)1.03 (0.94 to 1.14)1.03 (0.89 to 1.19)
 Lipoprotein (a)1.08 (0.94 to 1.24)1.12 (1.02 to 1.23)0.97 (0.83 to 1.13)
Inflammatory
 C -reactive protein1.25 (1.13 to 1.39)1.23 (1.12 to 1.36)1.01 (0.89 to 1.16)
 Fibrinogen1.10 (0.99 to 1.23)1.16 (1.07 to 1.25)0.95 (0.84 to 1.08)
 Homocysteine1.09 (0.98 to 1.22)1.05 (0.96 to 1.13)1.04 (0.92 to 1.19)
 Ferritin1.06 (0.94 to 1.20)1.03 (0.92 to 1.14)1.03 (0.89 to 1.20)
Cardiac
 hsTroponin I1.49 (1.18 to 1.88)1.52 (1.15 to 1.99)0.98 (0.70 to 1.38)
 NT-pro-BNP1.97 (1.74 to 2.22)1.61 (1.47 to 1.76)1.22 (1.05 to 1.42)
Diet-related
 25-hydroxyvitamin D raw0.97 (0.86 to 1.09)0.98 (0.89 to 1.08)0.99 (0.85 to 1.16)
 25-hydroxyvitamin D adjusted1.01 (0.91 to 1.13)0.95 (0.87 to 1.03)1.07 (0.93 to 1.23)
 Vitamin B12 0.99 (0.89 to 1.09)1.03 (0.94 to 1.12)0.96 (0.85 to 1.09)
 γ-Glutamyl transferase1.15 (1.02 to 1.28)1.15 (1.06 to 1.26)0.99 (0.87 to 1.13)
Renal-related
 Uric acid1.30 (1.16 to 1.46)1.08 (0.98 to 1.19)1.21 (1.04 to 1.40)
 Creatinine1.08 (0.94 to 1.24)0.93 (0.83 to 1.04)1.16 (0.99 to 1.37)
 Cystatin-C1.24 (1.19 to 1.30)1.11 (1.02 to 1.20)1.12 (1.03 to 1.23)
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; ASSIGN, ASsessing cardiovascular risk using SIGN; BP, blood pressure; CHD, coronary heart disease; CO, carbon monoxide; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; hsTroponin, High-sensitivity troponin I; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NT-pro-BNP, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide; SIMD, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation