Table 2

Aetiologies of pericardial diseases in African-based populations

StudyYear of publicationPeriod of recruitmentCountryStudy designSettingStudy populationDiagnostic method of pericardial diseaseSample sizeMean age% of male% of HIVAetiologiesNumber of casesPrevalence (%)
Cegielski et al 27 19941989–1990TanzaniaProspective cross-sectional.Hospital basedHIV patients with large pericardial effusion.Echocardiography, biochemistry, bacteriology, cytology and histology.14NRNR100Tuberculosis14100
Sidibe16 20072005–2006MaliRetrospective cross-sectional.Hospital basedHIV patients with pericardial disease.Echocardiography, chest X-ray, ECG and bacteriology.4940.563.3100HIV (or unknown)2040.8
Tuberculosis1428.6
Heart failure36.1
Uraemic612.2
Other612.2
Maiga31 20051994–2004MaliRetrospective cross-sectional.Hospital basedPatients with acute pericarditis.Echocardiography, chest X-ray, ECG and bacteriology.7630.557.9NRViral1519.7
Tuberculosis1013.2
Rheumatological disease810.5
Uraemic45.3
Bacterial22.6
Unknown3748.7
Alkhalifa et al 28 20092003–2003SudanRetrospective cross-sectional.Hospital basedPatients with pericardial effusion.Echocardiography, chest X-ray, ECG, bacteriology, histology and cytology (depending on cases).5134.256.9NRTuberculosis1529.4
Malignancy917.6
Rheumatological disease713.7
Idiopathic611.8
Bacterial59.8
Uremic47.9
Others59.8
Kesieme et al 29 20162010–2016NigeriaRetrospective cross-sectional.Hospital basedPatients with pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade.Echocardiography32NR56.2NRTuberculosis1443.8
Idiopathic618.7
Malignancy412.5
Bacterial infection39.4
Uraemia39.4
Steroid-resistant nephritic syndrome13.1
Suspected haemorrhagic fever13.1
Abubakar et al 30 20112003–2008NigeriaRetrospective cross-sectional.Hospital basedPatients with pericardial disease.NR68NRNR61.8Tuberculosis2739.7
Malignancy1116.2
Chronic inflammation1623.5
Unknown1420.6
Reuter et al 51 20051995–2001South AfricaRetrospective cross-sectional.Hospital basedPatients with large pericardial effusions.Echocardiography, bacteriology and cytology.2333856.736.1Tuberculosis16269.5
Malignancy229.4
Uraemia125.2
Septic52.1
Others3213.7
Pio et al 13 20162011–2014TogoProspective.
Cross-sectional.
Hospital basedPatients with evidence of pericarditis.Echocardiography, ECG and bacteriology.3842.542.147Tuberculosis2155
Idiopathic616
Bacterial38
Malignancy25
Uraemia25
HIV25
Connective tissue disease13
Lupus13
Mutyaba et al 26 20141990–2012South AfricaRetrospective.
Cross-sectional.
Hospital basedPatients with constrictive pericarditis.Echocardiography, bacteriology and histology.12141.365.311.6Tuberculosis11090.9
Idiopathic64.9
Others54.1
Mynors and Reichman24 19731967–1971ZimbabweRetrospective.Hospital basedPatients with pericarditis.Pathology.57NRNRNRTuberculosis3764.9
Acute purulent1017.5
Malignancy23.5
Serous23.5
Unknown610.5