Table 1

Baseline characteristics of all patients grouped according to BMI: normal BMI, overweight and obese

All (N=3333)Normal BMI (BMI<25.0),
n=728
Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9),
n=1537
P value (overweight versus normal)Obese (BMI≥30.0),
n=1068
P value (obese versus normal)
Age (years)
 n333272815370.91610670.065
 Mean57.9 (10.4)57.7 (11.9)58.1 (10.4)57.6 (9.2)
Females (%)1065/3333 (32.0)201/728 (36.8)369/1537 (24.0)<0.001* 428/1068 (40.1)0.164
Duration of AF (years)
 n1288271620397
 Median (SD)4.3 (5.2)4.7 (6.1)4.5 (5.3)3.8 (4.1)
CHA2DS2-VASC
 n323369214990.5001042<0.001*
 Median (IQR)1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (0.0–2.0)1.0 (0.0–2.0)2.0 (1.0–3.0)
Type of AF (%)
 Paroxysmal2239/3333 (67.2)510/728 (70.1)1061/1537 (69.0)0.625668/1068 (62.5)0.004*
 Persistent927/3333 (27.8)182/728 (25.0)409/1537 (26.6)336/1068 (31.5)
 Long-standing persistent167/3333 (5.0)36/728 (4.9)67/1537 (4.4)64/1068 (6.0)
Comorbid conditions (%)
 Hypertension1827/3323 (55.0)275/727 (37.8)828/1532 (54.0)<0.001* 724/1064 (68.0)<0.001*
 Diabetes mellitus325/3326 (9.8)31/726 (4.3%)112/1536 (7.3)0.006* 182/1064 (17.1)<0.001*
 Hyperlipidaemia1091/3269 (33.4)183/716 (25.6)502/1510 (33.2)406/1043 (38.9)
 Active smokers333/3209 (10.4)81/710 (11.4)156/1479 (10.5)0.54496/1020 (9.4)0.178
 OSA113/3070 (3.7)13/689 (1.9)47/1414 (3.3)0.06353/967 (5.5)<0.001*
 Valvular heart disease372/2263 (16.4)80/399 (20.1%)183/1029 (17.8%)0.322109/835 (13.1%)0.001*
 Prior stroke/TIA228/3323 (6.9)48/726 (6.6)96/1530 (6.3)0.76084/1067 (7.9)0.316
Baseline echocardiogram data
 LVEF
  n261755112000.0548660.021
  Mean (±SD)59.8 (8.4)60.3 (8.7)59.7 (8.7)59.7 (7.9)
 LA diameter†
  n24465051116825
  Mean (±SD)42.6 (6.6)40.2 (6.5)42.2 (6.6)<0.001* 44.5 (6.2)<0.001*
 LVESV/m2
  n1499301670528
  Mean (±SD)21.6 (9.9)21.5 (9.3)22.1 (10.6)<0.001* 21.0 (9.1)<0.001*
 LVEDV/m2
  n1568317698553
  Mean (±SD)48.8 (17.8)48.9 (18.1)49.7 (18.9)<0.001* 47.6 (16.3)<0.001*
Baseline AAD therapy
 Amiodarone807/3320 (24.3)142/727 (19.5)351/1530 (22.9)0.0676314/1063 (29.5)<0.001*
 Beta-blockers11783/3326 (53.6)333/728 (45.7)823/1532 (53.7)<0.001* 627/1066 (58.8)<0.001*
 Flecainide548/3328 (16.5)141/728 (19.4)277/1534 (18.1)0.453130/1066 (12.2)<0.001*
 Propafenone511/3327 (15.4)104/728 (14.3)241/1533 (15.7)0.375166/1066 (15.6)0.454
 Dronedarone95/3329 (2.9)24/728 (3.3)36/1535 (2.3)0.18835/1066 (3.3)0.988
 Quinidine5/3328 (0.2)1/728 (0.1)3/1534 (0.2)1.0001/1066 (0.1)1.000
 Disopyramide8/3328 (0.2)1/728 (0.1)5/1534 (0.3)0.6712/1066 (0.2)1.000
 Other47/3328 (1.4)10/728 (1.4)16/1534 (1.0)0.49121/1066 (2.0)0.341
  • *P<0.05.

  • †LA diameter measure in anteroposterior dimensions on TTE.

  • AAD, antiarrhythmic drug; AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; LA, left atrium; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEDV, left ventricular end diastolic volume; LVESV, left ventricular end systolic volume; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; TTE, transthoracic echocardiogram.