Table 3

Factors associated with the presence of significant echocardiographic heart disease, bivariate and multivariate analyses

GroupOverall population (n=1004)Screening population (n=299)Referral population (n=705)
VariableOR (95% CI)P valuesOR (95% CI)P valuesOR (95% CI)P values
Age (each 10 years)†1.62 (1.48 to 1.73) <0.001* 1.31 (1.11 to 1.55) 0.001* 1.72 (1.54 to 1.91) <0.001*
Sex (male)1.05 (0.80 to 1.37)0.751.32 (0.77 to 2.28)0.320.99 (0.72 to 1.36)0.96
Dyspnoea1.70 (1.24 to 2.33) 0.001* 1.84 (0.78 to 4.33)0.161.44 (1.02 to 2.04) 0.04*
Chest pain1.68 (1.25 to 2.26) 0.001* 1.51 (0.74 to 3.09)0.261.51 (1.09 to 2.11) 0.01*
Palpitations1.64 (1.16 to 2.30) 0.005* 2.11 (0.88 to 5.04) 0.095* 1.36 (0.94 to 1.98)0.10
Hypertension2.62 (2.00 to 3.43) <0.001* 1.27 (0.74 to 2.19)0.393.01 (2.18 to 4.17) <0.001*
Diabetes1.28 (0.91 to 1.79)0.161.03 (0.49 to 2.16)0.931.33 (0.90 to 1.96)0.17
History of PAD2.23 (1.39 to 3.56) 0.001* 2.12 (0.67 to 6.72)0.202.03 (1.21 to 3.41) 0.007*
History of stroke2.15 (1.23 to 3.74) 0.007* 1.09 (0.22 to 5.54)0.912.13 (1.16 to 3.93) 0.015*
Family history of VHD0.52 (0.22 to 1.23)0.141.23 (0.32 to 4.80)0.760.36 (0.12 to 1.09) 0.072*
Previous referral for echo†2.21 (1.62 to 3.00) <0.001*
Multivariable analysis
Interaction† (age×previous referral for echo)1.30 (1.07 to 1.59) <0.008*
Age (each 10 years)1.31 (1.11 to 1.54) <0.001* 1.63 (1.45 to 1.83) <0.001*
Hypertension1.56 (1.07 to 2.26) 0.02*
  • * P<0.05.

  • †In the absence of the interaction term, age (OR 1.59, 95%CI 1.45 to 1.74) and previous referral for echo (OR 1.90, 95%CI 1.36 to 2.65) were the independent predictors of heart disease for the overall population. After its insertion in the adjusted model, these variables became not significant (age: OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.42; previous referral fore echo: OR 2.52, 95% CI 0.77 to 8.19).

  • Echo, echocardiogram; PAD, peripheral artery disease; VHD, valvular heart disease.