Table 2

Primary and secondary outcomes analyses between usual care and app user groups at 3-month follow-up

ParameterUsual care group (n=51)App user group (n=101)*Mean difference (95% CI)P values for the difference
Primary outcome
 Mean MMAS-8 score (95% CI)†6.63 (6.35 to 6.92)7.11 (6.90 to 7.31)0.47 (0.12 to 0.82)0.008
Secondary outcomes
 BP, mm Hg‡
  Systolic BP, mean (SD)126.0 (19.12)125.0 (17.05)−0.89 (−6.97 to 5.20)0.773
  Diastolic BP, mean (SD)81.1 (10.47)80.2 (8.76)−0.87 (−4.07 to 2.30)0.592
  BP <140/90 mm Hg, N/total (%)37/50 (74.0)77/100 (77.0)1.04 (0.86 to 1.27)§0.685
  Cholesterol, mmol/L
  Total cholesterol, mean (SD)¶3.60 (0.84)3.60 (0.90)0.00 (−0.31 to 0.30)0.990
  LDL-C, mean (SD)**1.68 (0.70)1.62 (0.75)−0.05 (−0.31 to 0.21)0.692
  LDL-C <2 mmol/L, N/total (%)37/48 (77.1)65/94 (69.1)0.90 (0.73 to 1.10) §0.320
 Number of pills missed in the last 7 days, mean (95% CI)
  Antiplatelets1.3 (0.6 to 2.0)0.8 (0.4 to 1.2)−0.5 (−1.3 to 0.2)0.164
  ACE inhibitor/ARB3.0 (2.1 to 3.9)2.6 (1.9 to 3.2)−0.4 (−1.5 to 0.7)0.433
  Beta-blockers2.3 (1.4 to 3.1)3.2 (2.5 to 3.8)0.9 (−0.2 to 2.0)0.099
  Statins1.3 (0.6 to 2.0)0.9 (0.5 to 1.4)−0.4 (−1.2 to 0.4)0.340
  Any of the four medications above2.0 (1.4 to 2.5)1.9 (1.5 to 2.2)−0.1 (−0.7 to 0.5)0.754
 Medication knowledge, N/total (%)
  Can list the names of medications32/50 (64.0)76/101 (75.2)1.18 (0.93 to 1.49)§0.150
  Knows when to take medications49/50 (98.0)91/101 (90.1)0.92 (0.85 to 0.99)§0.079
  Knows how to take medications49/50 (98.0)94/101 (93.1)0.95 (0.89 to 1.01)§0.203
  Knows what medications are for41/50 (82.0)84/101 (83.2)1.01 (0.87 to 1.19)§0.858
  • *App user group includes basic and advanced app users.

  • †Analysis of covariance using mean MMAS-8 values at baseline as covariates.

  • ‡BP available for 50 patients in the usual care group and 100 patients in the app user group at 3 months.

  • §Rate ratio with 95% CI.

  • ¶Total cholesterol available for 49 patients in the usual care group and 98 patients in the app user group at 3 months.

  • **LDL-C available for 48 patients in the usual care group and 94 patients in the app user group at 3 months.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MMAS-8, 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale.