Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Group 1Group 2Group 3Group 4P values
BNP<100 pg/mL100≤BNP<200 pg/mL200≤BNP<300 pg/mLBNP≥300 pg/mL
(n=201)(n=94)(n=42)(n=50)
Clinical characteristics
 Age, years75.6±8.980.0±8.483.6±8.183.7±8.3<0.001
  Age≥80 years71 (35)47 (50)33 (79)37 (74)<0.001
 Male78 (39)40 (43)15 (36)19 (38)0.87
 BMI<22 kg/m2 103 (51)49 (52)24 (57)38 (76)0.02
 BSA, m2 1.50±0.181.49±0.211.46±0.201.40±0.190.03
 Hypertension141 (70)63 (67)29 (69)38 (76)0.74
 Current smoking11 (5.5)2 (2.1)2 (4.8)1 (2.0)0.48
 Dyslipidemia92 (46)33 (35)15 (36)18 (36)0.24
  On statin therapy64 (32)25 (27)12 (29)14 (28)0.81
 Diabetes mellitus42 (21)27 (29)8 (19)11 (22)0.45
  On insulin therapy9 (4.5)6 (6.4)7 (17)0 (0)0.004
 Prior myocardial infarction10 (5.0)6 (6.4)5 (12)7 (14)0.09
 Prior PCI23 (11)16 (17)8 (19)9 (18)0.36
 Prior CABG9 (4.5)6 (6.4)1 (2.4)1 (2.0)0.58
 Prior open heart surgery25 (12)8 (8.5)1 (2.4)2 (4.0)0.09
 Prior symptomatic stroke20 (10)18 (19)11 (26)14 (28)0.002
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter27 (13)33 (35)16 (38)17 (34)<0.001
 Aortic/peripheral vascular disease12 (6.0)7 (7.5)2 (4.8)4 (8.0)0.89
 Serum creatinine, mg/dL0.7 (0.6–0.9)0.8 (0.7–1.1)0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.1 (0.7–1.4)<0.001
 Anaemia86 (43)55 (59)27 (64)34 (68)0.001
 Liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B or C)1 (0.5)2 (2.1)0 (0)2 (4.0)0.18
 Malignancy currently under treatment8 (4.0)7 (7.5)5 (12)4 (8.0)0.21
 Chronic lung disease (moderate or severe)11 (5.5)1 (1.1)2 (4.8)1 (2.0)0.27
 Coronary artery disease49 (24)31 (33)12 (29)12 (24)0.44
 Logistic EuroSCORE, %7.5 (5.0–10.7)8.5 (5.5–14.6)10.1 (8.0–16.3)15.1 (7.7–23.7)<0.001
 EuroSCORE II, %1.9 (1.2–2.9)2.7 (1.6–3.8)3.2 (2.6–4.4)3.7 (2.5–4.9)<0.001
 STS score (PROM), %2.7 (1.7–3.9)3.4 (2.1–5.2)4.4 (2.9–6.0)4.3 (3.1–7.1)<0.001
 Aetiology of aortic stenosis0.31
  Degenerative170 (85)84 (89)40 (95)47 (94)
  Congenital19 (9.5)5 (5.3)1 (2.4)1 (2.0)
  Rheumatic11 (5.5)5 (5.3)1 (2.4)1 (2.0)
  Other1 (0.5)0 (0)0 (0)1 (2.0)
 BNP, pg/mL49 (32–68)142 (122–164)244 (221–267)543 (384–684)<0.001
Echocardiographic variables
 Vmax, m/s3.8±0.63.8±0.73.8±0.73.7±0.70.66
 Peak aortic PG, mm Hg58±1760±2060±2256±200.57
 Mean aortic PG, mm Hg33±1035±1332±1332±120.32
 AVA (equation of continuity), cm2 0.84±0.140.78±0.140.76±0.170.77±0.17<0.001
 AVA index, cm2/m2 0.57±0.100.53±0.100.54±0.130.56±0.150.06
 LV end-diastolic diameter, mm44±645±645±645±50.85
 LV end-systolic diameter, mm27±528±528±530±50.02
 LVEF, %69±867±968±865±80.007
 IVST in diastole, mm11±211±212±211±30.006
 PWT in diastole, mm10±211±211±210±30.09
 LV mass, g166±51179±52187±58176±590.052
 Any combined valvular disease (moderate or severe)39 (19)37 (39)19 (45)25 (50)<0.001
  Moderate or severe AR23 (11)16 (17)6 (14)15 (30)0.01
  Moderate or severe MS2 (1.0)6 (6.4)2 (4.8)2 (4.0)0.08
  Moderate or severe MR5 (2.5)12 (13)9 (21)12 (24)<0.001
  Moderate or severe TR14 (7.0)17 (18)8 (19)15 (30)<0.001
 TR pressure gradient≥40 mm Hg13 (6.5)13 (14)5 (12)14 (28)<0.001
  • We presented the categorical variables as number (%), and the continuous variables as mean±SD, or median with IQR.

  • AR, aortic regurgitation; AVA, aortic valve area; BMI, body mass index; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; BSA, body surface area; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; IVST, interventricular septum thickness; LV, left ventricular; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MR, mitral regurgitation; MS, mitral stenosis; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PG, pressure gradient; PROM, predicted risk of mortality; PWT, posterior wall thickness; STS, Society of Thoracic Surgeons; TR, tricuspid regurgitation; Vmax, peak aortic jet velocity.