Table 3

Estimated radiation dose of non-invasive and invasive cardiac imaging for typical equipment in typical patients24 31 44 45 50–53

ModalityEffective dose (mSv)
X-rayChest X-ray51 0.02
CTCoronary artery calcium score CT31 1–3
Low dose coronary artery calcium score CT*52 0.2–0.4
CTCA31 2–5
TAVI CT assessment (chest, abdomen and pelvis)24 5–50
FluoroscopyICA24 2–20
TAVI, transapical24 12–23
TAVI, transfemoral24 33–100
Diagnostic electrophysiology study24 0.1–3
Radiofrequency arrhythmia ablation24 1–25
SPECT†‡ 99mTc-sestamibi
50
Stress only full dose10
Rest and stress half dose6
Rest and stress full dose13
99mTc-tetrofosmin
50
Rest and stress half dose6
Rest and stress full dose11
201Thallium
44
Rest and stress half dose10.4
Rest and stress full dose21
PET
(rest or stress imaging)†‡
13N-ammonia45 2
15O-water45 2
82Rubidium chloride45 3
18F-FDG53 5
18F-Sodium fluoride53 4
  • *Using iterative reconstruction and tube voltage of 100 kV or below.

  • †If attenuation correction CT is performed this radiation dose must also be taken into account (~0.5–2 mSv).45

  • ‡Typical values based on recommended tracer injected activity for standard patients.

  • 18 F-FDG, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose; CTCA, CT coronary angiography; ICA, invasive coronary angiography; SPECT, single-photon emission CT; TAVI, transcatheter aortic valve implantation.