Table 3

Estimated radiation dose of non-invasive and invasive cardiac imaging for typical equipment in typical patients24 31 44 45 50–53

ModalityEffective dose (mSv)
X-rayChest X-ray51 0.02
CTCoronary artery calcium score CT31 1–3
Low dose coronary artery calcium score CT*52 0.2–0.4
CTCA31 2–5
TAVI CT assessment (chest, abdomen and pelvis)24 5–50
FluoroscopyICA24 2–20
TAVI, transapical24 12–23
TAVI, transfemoral24 33–100
Diagnostic electrophysiology study24 0.1–3
Radiofrequency arrhythmia ablation24 1–25
SPECT†‡ 99mTc-sestamibi
Stress only full dose10
Rest and stress half dose6
Rest and stress full dose13
Rest and stress half dose6
Rest and stress full dose11
Rest and stress half dose10.4
Rest and stress full dose21
(rest or stress imaging)†‡
13N-ammonia45 2
15O-water45 2
82Rubidium chloride45 3
18F-FDG53 5
18F-Sodium fluoride53 4
  • *Using iterative reconstruction and tube voltage of 100 kV or below.

  • †If attenuation correction CT is performed this radiation dose must also be taken into account (~0.5–2 mSv).45

  • ‡Typical values based on recommended tracer injected activity for standard patients.

  • 18 F-FDG, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose; CTCA, CT coronary angiography; ICA, invasive coronary angiography; SPECT, single-photon emission CT; TAVI, transcatheter aortic valve implantation.