Table 1

Clinical and echocardiographic data of the studied population

No outflow obstructionOutflow obstructionTotalP value
NormalAortic valve sclerosisAortic valve stenosis
Studies, n 81906479148716 156
Patients, n 70555643122213 920
Age, years 57±1877±12*79±12*†66±19<0.001
Sex, male n (%) 3046 (52)2330 (50)490 (47)†5866 (51)0.01
Body surface area, m2 1.81±0.211.76±0.21*1.75±0.19*1.79±0.21<0.001
Sinus rhythm, n (%) 7269 (92)4512 (73)*1019 (72)*12 800 (83)<0.001
Study indication, n (%) <0.001
Known or suspected heart failure2713 (25)1845 (23)*213 (14)*†4771 (23)
Known or suspected rhythm disturbance1271 (12)492 (6)*24 (2)*†1787 (9)
Known or suspected ischaemic heart disease618 (6)271 (3)*20 (1)*†909 (4)
Known or suspected cardioembolism317 (3)428 (5)*23 (2)*†768 (4)
Systemic hypertension386 (4)232 (3)*15 (1)*†633 (3)
Known or suspected valvular heart disease62 (1)101 (1)*32 (2)*195 (1)
Pulmonary hypertension63 (1)65 (1)14 (1)142 (1)
Other/Unspecified5451 (50)4681 (58)*1147 (77)*†11 279 (55)
LV septal thickness, cm 1.0±0.21.0±0.2*1.2±0.2*†1.0±0.2<0.001
Left atrial diameter, cm 3.5±0.63.9±0.8*4.2±0.8*†3.7±0.8<0.001
LV end diastolic volume, mL 109±47125±56*135±57*117±52<0.001
LV end systolic volume, mL 53±3771±47*72±43*61±43<0.001
LV ejection fraction, % 59±955±11*56±9*†57±10<0.001
LV mass index, g/m2 81±2291±34*104±50*†86±29<0.001
LVOT diameter, cm 2.1±0.22.1±0.22.1±0.22.1±0.20.55
LVOT time–velocity integral, cm 21±521±622±6*†22±6<0.001
Stroke volume, mL 69±2069±2073±25*†69±22<0.001
Peak aortic jet velocity, cm/s 122±46123±61337±84*†142±84<0.001
Aortic time–velocity integral, cm 28±731±8*75±23*†33±17<0.001
Aortic regurgitation, n (%) <0.001
 0–I8025 (98)5822 (90)*1271 (85)*†
 II96 (1)427 (7)*89 (6)*
 III47 (1)153 (2)*21 (1)*†
 IV22 (0)77 (1)*107 (7)*†
Mitral regurgitation, n (%) <0.001
 0–I5957 (73)3204 (49)*669 (45)*†9830 (61)
 II1818 (22)2144 (33)*430 (29)*†4392 (27)
 III337 (4)865 (13)*223 (15)*1425 (9)
 IV78 (1)266 (4)*165 (11)*†509 (3)
E wave velocity, cm/s 75±2481±34*95±45*†78±31<0.001
A wave velocity, cm/s 70±2285±26*100±35*†78±27<0.001
 E/e' ratio 5±38±4*10±5*†7±3<0.001
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure, mm Hg 30±1238±15*43±16*†36±15<0.001
  • Data presented as mean±SD, except otherwise indicated. P values obtained by one-way analysis of variance or χ2 tests, where appropriate. The bold text in this table refers to categories.

  • *P<0.05 vs normal valves.

  • †P<0.05 vs sclerotic valves by Tukey or Fisher exact (Holm correction) pairwise contrasts, where appropriate.

  • LV, left ventricle; LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract.