Table 4

Associations of in-study LV mass–wall stress–heart rate product with HRs of study outcomes

Study outcomeUnadjusted
HR (95% CI)
P valueAdjusted model 1*
HR (95% CI)
P valueAdjusted model 2†
HR (95% CI)
P value
Primary endpoint (n=456)1.23 (1.14 to 1.32)<0.0011.16 (1.06 to 1.29)0.0021.16 (1.05 to 1.29)0.002
Heart failure hospitalisation (n=53)1.60 (1.37 to 1.87)<0.0011.18 (0.94 to 1.50)0.162n.a.
CV death (n=63)1.50 (1.31 to 1.77)<0.0011.42 (1.14 to 1.79)0.002n.a.
Combined CV death and hospitalised HF (n=105)1.49 (1.34 to 1.66)<0.0011.29 (1.09 to 1.54)0.0041.33 (1.11 to 1.60)0.002
All-cause mortality (n=121)1.33 (1.17 to 1.51)<0.0011.34 (1.13 to 1.58)0.0011.36 (1.15 to 1.62)<0.001
Combined all-cause mortality and hospitalised HF (n=153)1.40 (1.26 to 1.56)<0.0011.29 (1.12 to 1.49)<0.0011.32 (1.14 to 1.53)<0.001
Non-fatal myocardial infarction (n=26)1.40 (1.07 to 1.83)0.016n.a.n.a.
  • Unadjusted and adjusted time-varying Cox regression models. Results of 1 SD higher in-study LV mass–wall stress–heart rate are presented as HR and 95% CI.

  • *Adjusted for sex, baseline hypertension and age, and time-varying body mass index, LV hypertrophy, LV ejection fraction and peak jet velocity.

  • †Adjusted also for prevalent atrial fibrillation use of beta-blocker treatment at baseline and time-varying left atrial diameter, stroke volume index and serum creatinine.

  • CV, cardiovascular; HF, heart failure; LV, left ventricular; n.a., not applicable.