Table 2

Effect estimates for association between sub-optimal LDL-C response at 24 months to initiated statin therapy and the risk of incident cardiovascular events using different statistical approaches (n=165 411)

GroupNumber of CVD eventsRate of CVD events (per 1000 person-years)Crude/unadjusted modelsAdjusted models
Cox regressionCompeting-risks survival regressionCox regressionCompeting-risks survival regression
HR (95% CI)sHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)sHR (95% CI)
Overall CVD-related event*Optimal10 65619.71111
Sub-optimal12 14222.61.17 (1.13 to 1.20)1.13 (1.10 to 1.16)1.22 (1.19 to 1.25)1.19 (1.16 to 1.23)†
Sub-optimal715613.31.22 (1.17 to 1.26)1.18 (1.14 to 1.22)1.30 (1.25 to 1.34)1.23 (1.19 to 1.27) §
Sub-optimal24784.61.07 (1.01 to 1.13)1.02 (0.96 to 1.08)1.15 (1.08 to 1.22)1.10 (1.04 to 1.17)¶
Sub-optimal16353.01.14 (1.07 to 1.23)1.09 (1.02 to 1.17)1.16 (1.08 to 1.25)1.12 (1.04 to 1.21)**
CVD-related death*Optimal8211.51111
Sub-optimal8731.61.09 (0.99 to 1.20)1.04 (0.95 to 1.15)1.25 (1.13 to 1.38)1.21 (1.09 to 1.34)††
  • Cox regression provides hazard ratio (HR) whereas competing-risks survival regression (Fine-Grey model) provides sub-hazard ratio (sHR).

  • *The multivariable Cox and competing-risk regression models for overall CVD-related events, stroke/TIA, PVD and CVD-related deaths were adjusted for age and baseline LDL-C value.

  • †Competing risks for overall CVD-related event were non-CVD-related death and transfer out of practice.

  • ‡The multivariable Cox and competing-risk regression models for CAD were adjusted for age.

  • §Competing risks for CAD model were death, transfer out of practice, stroke/TIA and PVD.

  • ¶Competing risks for stroke/TIA model were death, transfer out of practice, CAD and PVD.

  • **Competing risks for PVD model were death, transfer out of practice, CAD and stroke/TIA.

  • ††Competing risks for CVD-related death were non-CVD-related death, transfer out of practice, CAD, stroke/TIA and PVD.

  • CAD, coronary artery disease; CPRD, Clinical Practice Research Datalink; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HES, Hospital Episodes Statistics, LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; ONS, Office of National Statistics; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.