Table 1

Baseline characteristics for all patients and stratified according to the quartile distribution of sST2

All
(n=590)
sST2 quartilesP value for trend
First
<18.0 ng/mL (n=147)
Second
18.0–24.3 ng/mL (n=149)
Third
24.3–32.2 ng/mL (n=149)
Fourth
>32.2 ng/mL (n=145)
Clinical characteristics
Age, years33 (25-41)34 (26-43)33 (25-41)33 (25-43)31 (24-37)0.039
Sex, women, n (%)248 (42)100 (68)80 (54)45 (30)23 (16)<0.001
Surgical repair, n (%)538 (91)137 (93)135 (91)131 (88)135 (93)0.769
Age at surgical repair, years3.8 (0.8–11.9)4.4 (1.0–13.9)3.3 (0.8–11.1)3.6 (0.7–11.7)3.3 (0.7–12.2)0.324
Congenital diagnosis, complex, n (%)*324 (55)71 (48)79 (53)88 (59)86 (59)0.033
Cardiac medication use, n (%)†211 (36)55 (37)48 (32)56 (38)52 (36)0.956
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.8±4.425.3±4.624.6±3.924.9±4.724.1±4.20.040
Heart rate, beats/minute74±1374±1372±1474±1375±130.332
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg126±16126±19126±16126±14127±160.682
O2saturation <90%, n (%)17 (3)0 (0)2 (1)5 (3)10 (7)<0.001
NYHA class, II or III, n (%)61 (10)10 (7)10 (7)18 (12)23 (16)0.004
Electrocardiography
Rhythm, n (%)0.153
  Sinus rhythm509 (86)121 (82)131 (88)135 (91)122 (84)
  Paced rhythm44 (8)13 (9)10 (7)6 (4)15 (10)
  Other37 (6)13 (9)8 (5)8 (5)8 (6)
QRS duration, ms113 [100-137]110 [95-128]112 [99-136]115 [101-148]115 [104-138]0.002
Echocardiography
Left atrial volume, mL/m2 21 [16 -29]20 [16-29]21 [15-29].520 [15-29]21 [15-30]0.656
Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, mL/m2* 63±1960±2063±1864±1766±200.019
Left ventricular ejection fraction, %‡56±857±856±956±756±70.218
Right ventricular end diastolic annulus, mm42±841±841±843±844±80.002
Right ventricular fractional area change, %38±1140±1238±1037±1238±110.200
Systemic ventricular function, n (%)0.202
  Normal296 (50)81 (55)79 (53)67 (45)69 (48)
  Mildly impaired207 (35)48 (33)47 (32)59 (40)53 (37)
  Moderately impaired69 (12)13 (9)17 (11)20 (13)19 (13)
  Severely impaired18 (3)5 (3)6 (4)3 (2)4 (3)
E/A ratio1.6±0.71.7±0.81.6±0.61.6±0.61.7±0.60.910
E′ wave, m/s8.2±2.68.3±2.78.1±2.58.0±2.58.5±2.60.011
E/E′ ratio11.6±5.112.1±5.711.7±4.111.4±5.011.2±5.30.220
Severe valvular dysfunction, n (%)§83(14)16 (11)21 (14)21 (14)25 (18)0.136
Laboratory results
Creatinine, μmol/L77±1874±1573±1379±1782±24<0.001
NT-proBNP, pmol/L¶15 [7-33]18 [8-36]13 [7-33]15 [6-30]15 [6-29]0.481
sST2, ng/mL24.3 (18.0–32.2)14.0 (11.4–16.1)21.0 (19.5–22.5)28.1 (26.1–30.0)39.9 (34.9–49.6)-
  • *Congenital diagnosis of arterial switch operation, aortic stenosis or aortic coarctation (0) versus tetralogy of Fallot, Rastelli, systemic right ventricle, univentricular heart or pulmonary arterial hypertension (1).

  • †Beta-blocker (=90, 15%), ACE inhibitor (n=88, 15%), diuretic (n=71,12%), antiarrhythmic (n=53, 9%) angiotensin receptor blocker (n=36, 6%).

  • ‡Left-sided volumes were not measured in patients with a systemic right ventricle, univentricular heart, pulmonary hypertension or a poor acoustic window. 

  • §Defined as maximal aortic or pulmonary valve velocity >4.0 m/s; grade 3 or 4 out of 4 aortic, pulmonary or mitral valve regurgitation; or grade 4 out of 4 tricuspid valve regurgitation.

  • ¶Analysis was performed based on 2log transformed values.

  • NT-proBNP, N terminal pro-B type brain natriuretic peptide; NYHA,New York Heart Association; sST2,soluble suppression of tumourigenicity-2.