Table 3

Characteristics and echocardiographic measures in 304 collegiate athletes at routine preparticipation echocardiographic screening, presented by blood pressure categories

<120 and <80 mm Hg
120–129 and <80 mm Hg
130–139 and/or 80–89 mm Hg*
≥140 and/or ≥90 mm Hg*
P value ANOVA
Males (n, %)58 (70.7%)74 (89.2%)89 (92.7%)43 (100.0%)<0.001
Football players (n, %)45 (54.9%)59 (71.1%)76 (79.2%)39 (90.7%)<0.001
Age (years)18.8±1.018.8±1.219.0±1.219.1±1.10.240
Weight (kg)86.0±16.794.1±16.2101.6±19.9110.7±21.4<0.001
Height (cm)186±9188±8189±8191±70.007
BMI (kg/m²)24.7±3.826.6±4.128.3±4.930.3±5.2<0.001
BMI≥30 kg/m² (%)6 (7.3%)14 (16.9%)31 (32.3%)20 (46.5%)<0.001
BSA (m²)2.10±0.222.20±0.202.28±0.222.38±0.23<0.001
Heart rate (1/min)57±857±860±1060±100.078
Ethnicity (n, %)†
 Afro-American26 (31.7%)20 (24.1%)35 (36.5%)12 (27.9%)0.353
 Caucasian45 (54.9%)49 (59.0%)51 (53.1%)27 (62.8%)
 Other10 (12.2%)14 (16.8%)10 (10.4%)4 (10.3%)
 LVM (g)158±31174±33184±33202±37<0.001
 LVMI (g/m²)75.0±10.278.7±11.779.7±11.483.7±11.4<0.001
 LVEDV (mL)194±35206±40214±39226±40<0.001
 LVEDVI (mL/m²)92.1±12.993.0±13.793.0±14.093.6±13.70.093
 MVR (g/mL)0.82±0.090.85±0.100.86±0.100.90±0.10<0.001
 Sphericity index‡1.75±0.141.77±0.161.77±0.131.79±0.150.391
 LVEF (%)59.3±3.559.0±5.058.3±4.759.2±4.40.514
 LS4Ch (%)−19.3±2.3−19.3±2.6−18.6±2.2−18.9±1.80.288
 E (cm/s)83±1684±1580±1777±160.102
 e’lateral 17.3±3.617.6±3.216.9±3.815.9±3.80.105
 E/e’lateral 4.9±1.15.0±1.24.9±1.25.3±1.50.563
  • *≥130 and/or ≥90 mm Hg corresponds to the threshold defining hypertension in the current US guidelines, while ≥140 and/or ≥90 mm Hg correspond to current European guidelines.

  • †Data on ethnicity were missing for one of the athletes in the <120/<80 mm Hg group.

  • ‡Sphericity index was determined as (left ventricular (LV) length in the apical 4-chamber view/LV diameter in short-axis view).

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; BMI, body mass index; BSA, body surface area; LVM, LVMI and LVEDV, LVEDVI, left ventricular mass and end-diastolic volume with and without indexing for BSA, respectively; MVR, LV mass/volume ratio; RWT, relative wall thickness; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LS4Ch, longitudinal strain (4-chamber view); E/A, early and late diastolic mitral inflow velocities; e’lateral, early diastolic velocity of the basal lateral left ventricular wall.