Table 3

Association of risk factors with longitudinal changes in LVDF parameters among men

E waveA waveE/A ratioDTSeptal e′E/e′ ratio
Age*5.38 (2.60 to 8.16)†23.5 (20.4 to 26.6)†−0.010 (−0.012 to –0.009)†0.55 (0.23 to 0.87)†−0.006 (−0.02 to 0.03)0.015 (−0.05 to 0.019)
BMI0.22 (−0.10 to 0.54)1.25 (0.84 to 1.66)†−0.007 (−0.01 to –0.003)†0.86 (0.017 to 1.71)‡−0.03 (−0.07 to 0.006)0.12 (0.06 to 0.19)†
SBP0.14 (0.08 to 0.19)†0.12 (0.05 to 0.19)†0.0001 (−0.0007 to 0.0009)−0.09 (−0.25 to 0.05)−0.002 (−0.01 to 0.006)0.028 (0.01 to 0.04)†
DBP−0.21 (−0.32 to –0,10)†−0.10 (−0.24 to 0.03)−0.002 (−0.003 to –0.0004)‡0.18 (−0.11 to 0.46)−0.005 (−0.02 to 0.01)−0.016 (−0.04 to 0.008)
BP-lowering medication−0.78 (−2.79 to 1.23)1.90 (−0.66 to 4.47)−0.02 (−0.05 to 0.005)2.24 (−3.05 to 7.53)−0.09 (−0.33 to 0.16)0.11 (−0.27 to 0.48)
Heart rate−0.10 (−0.18 to 0.01)0.21 (0.10 to 0.32)†−0.003 (−0.004 to –0.002)†−0.29 (−0.52 to –0.06)‡0.003 (−0.007 to 0.01)−0.013 (−0.029 to 0.003)
Total cholesterol−0.55 (−1.55 to 0.45)−0.45 (−1.75 to 0.84)0.013 (−0.0005 to 0.03)1.42 (−1.23 to 4.06)−0.12 (−0.25 to 0.02)0.022 (−0.18 to 0.22)
HDL cholesterol−0.28 (−3.07 to 2.52)1.79 (−1.85 to 5.43)−0.005 (−0.05 to 0.03)3.03 (−4.41 to 10.47)0.17 (−0.17 to 0.51)−0.04 (−0.56 to 0.48)
Lipid-lowering medication0.23 (−2.11 to 2.58)−2.19 (−5.20 to 0.83)0.02 (−0.02 to 0.05)2.01 (−4.35 to 8.38)−0.15 (−0.45 to 0.15)−0.038 (−0.49 to 0.41)
Current smoking1.32 (−1.53 to 4.16)2.48 (−1.04 to 6.0)−0.007 (−0.05 to 0.03)2.72 (−4.79 to 10.2)0.04 (−0.39 to 0.47)−0.08 (−0.73 to 0.57)
Left
ventricular mass
−0.08 (−0.14 to –0.03)†−0.028 (−0.09 to 0.04)−0.0005 (−0.001 to 0.0002)0.006 (−0.13 to 0.14)−0.017 (−0.02 to –0.01)†0.017 (0.007 to 0.03)†
Prevalent CHD1.54 (−1.83 to 4.91)3.1 (−1.40 to 7.54)0.02 (−0.03 to 0.06)−1.59 (−10.96 to 7.78)−0.35 (−0.71 to 0.023)0.81 (0.26 to 1.37)†
Prevalent DM1.75 (−1.28 to 4.77)3.83 (0.06 to 7.60)‡0.005 (−0.04 to 0.05)−1.09 (−8.94 to 6.76)−0.40 (−0.70 to –0.09)‡0.60 (0.14 to 1.06)‡
Ejection fraction0.11 (−0.007 to 0.22)0.04 (−0.11 to 0.18)0.002 (0.0002 to 0.003)‡0.28 (−0.023 to 0.59)0.004 (−0.01 to 0.018)0.011 (−0.012 to 0.033)
Physical activity−0.005 (−0.03 to 0.01)−0.003 (−0.03 to 0.02)−0.00006 (−0.0004 to 0.0002)−0.02 (−0.07 to 0.03)0.002 (−0.0001 to 0.005)−0.003 (−0.007 to 0.001)
Left atrium dimension0.11 (−0.09 to 0.30)−0.21 (−0.46 to 0.04)0.003 (0.0003 to 0.006)‡−0.24 (−0.75 to 0.27)−0.002 (−0.02 to 0.02)−0.003 (−0.03 to 0.02)
  • All presented betas (95% CIs) are based on fully adjusted models.

  • *Age in this analysis is used as a time-varying covariate.

  • †P<0.0083 (significant at Bonferroni-corrected p value).

  • ‡P<0.05.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CHD, coronary heart disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LVDF, left ventricular diastolic function; SBP, systolic blood pressure.