Table 1

Study characteristics and methodological quality of 65 included studies

Characteristic% (No)
Year of publication1999 or earlier26.2 (17)
2000–200932.3 (21)
2010 or later41.5 (27)
Funding sourceReported40.0 (26)
None declared6.2 (4)
Not reported53.9 (35)
Ethics approvalYes33.9 (22)
‘Not required’3.1 (2)
Not reported63.1 (41)
Study designCross-sectional47.7 (31)
Ecological29.2 (19)
Cohort18.5 (12)
Case–control4.6 (3)
Armed conflictCroatian War of Independence (1991–1995)24.6 (16)
Bosnian War (1992–1995)18.5 (12)
Colombian conflict (1975–2015)9.2 (6)
Siege of Leningrad (1941–1944)7.7 (5)
Lebanese Civil War (1975–1991)6.2 (4)
Georgian-Ossetian Conflict (1989–present)3.1 (2)
US-led invasion of Iraq (2003–2011)3.1 (2)
Sudan Civil War (1983–2015)3.1 (2)
Unspecific conflicts in Uganda3.1 (2)
Other conflicts21.5 (14)
Level of jurisdictionCity41.5 (27)
Subnational26.2 (17)
National23.1 (15)
Camp or village7.7 (5)
Not reported1.5 (1)
SettingCommunity56.9 (37)
Hospital38.5 (25)
Educational establishment1.5 (1)
Not reported3.1 (2)
Armed conflict exposure measurementUniform exposure to all based on time and place47.7 (31)
Exposure to specific armed conflict events20.0 (13)
Exposure based on time of birth12.3 (8)
Exposure based on internal displacement9.2 (6)
Exposure based on war-related post-traumatic stress disorder4.6 (3)
Other exposure3.0 (2)
Comparison typeControl group61.5 (40)
Time trend38.5 (25)
Time between conflict and outcomeLess than 5 years27.7 (18)
5.0–9.9 years23.1 (15)
10.0–39.9 years27.7 (18)
40 years or more21.5 (14)
Newcastle-Ottawa ScaleLow quality (score <5)66.2 (43)
Moderate quality (score 5–6)18.5 (12)
High quality (score >6)15.4 (10)