Table 2

Association of risk factors with longitudinal changes in LVDF parameters among women

E WaveA WaveE/A ratioDTSeptal e′E/e′ ratio
Age*4.43 (2.32 to 6.53) †1.22 (1.14 to 1.30) †−0.43 (−0.47 to –0.38)†0.44 (0.20 to 0.68)†−0.02 (−0.005 to –0.04)‡0.015 (−0.05 to 0.019)
BMI0.24 (0.04 to 0.44)‡0.51 (0.25 to 0.76)†−0.0008 (−0.003 to 0.002)0.015 (−0.45 to 0.48)0.02 (−0.002 to 0.05)−0.015 (−0.06 to 0.03)
SBP0.11 (0.06 to 0.17)†0.18 (0.11 to 0.24)†−0.0002 (−0.0008 to 0.0005)−0.15 (−0.27 to –0.03)‡−0.006 (−0.01 to 0.0009)0.011 (−0.0005 to 0.02)
DBP−0.20 (−0.29 to –0.11)†−0.10 (−0.22 to 0.01)−0.002†(−0.003 to –0.0006)0.10 (−0.11 to 0.31)−0.001 (−0.01 to 0.01)−0.007 (−0.03 to 0.01)
BP-lowering medication−1.63 (−3.40 to 0.15)−0.12 (−2.39 to 2.16)−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01)1.77 (−2.38 to 5.91)−0.22 (−0.44 to 0.007)0.27 (−0.074 to 0.61)
Heart rate−0.02 (−0.10 to 0.06)0.37 (0.26 to 0.47)†−0.003† (−0.004 to –0.002)−0.18 (−0.37 to 0.005)−0.01 (−0.02 to 0.0006)0.014 (−0.003 to 0.03)
Total cholesterol0.009 (−0.80 to 0.83)−0.14 (−1.17 to 0.89)−0.0004 (−0.01 to 0.01)−0.62 (−2.51 to 1.27)−0.07 (−0.18 to 0.032)0.06 (−0.10 to 0.23)
HDL cholesterol1.19 (−0.73 to 3.10)−1.12 (−3.51 to 1.27)0.016 (−0.008 to 0.04)−3.70 (−8.07 to 0.67)0.37 (0.13 to 0.62)†−0.46 (−0.84 to –0.08)‡
Lipid-lowering medication0.58 (−1.35 to 2.50)2.03 (−0.44 to 4.49)−0.001 (−0.03 to 0.01)−1.51 (−5.96 to 2.95)−0.28 (−0.54 to –0.03)‡0.55 (0.15 to 0.96)†
Current smoking−1.46 (−3.66 to 0.74)−0.43 (−3.20 to 2.35)−0.02 (−0.05 to 0.01)7.73 (2.56 to 12.9)†−0.18 (−0.51 to 0.14)−0.14 (−0.66 to 0.37)
Left ventricular mass−0.06 (−0.11 to –0.01)‡0.02 (−0.05 to 0.08)−0.0006 (−0.001 to –0.0000003)0.014 (−0.10 to 0.13)−0.02 (−0.03 to –0.01)†0.02† (0.008 to 0.03)
Prevalent CHD−3.88 (−11.5 to 3.69)7.07 (−0.36 to 14.51)−0.06 (−0.14 to 0.02)−3.38 (−17.9 to 11.22)−0.56 (−1.07 to –0.05)‡0.84 (0.007 to 1.68)‡
Prevalent DM1.38 (−1.20 to 3.98)1.72 (−1.50 to 4.94)−0.008 (−0.04 to 0.02)3.15 (−2.74 to 9.03)−0.03 (−0.31 to 0.25)−0.26 (−0.70 to 0.18)
Ejection fraction0.07 (−0.04 to 0.18)0.06 (−0.09 to 0.21)0.001 (−0.0003 to 0.003)0.10 (−0.17 to 0.38)0.0007 (−0.013 to 0.015)0.011 (−0.011 to 0.03)
Physical activity0.01 (−0.005 to 0.03)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.04)0.00005 (−0.0001 to 0.0003)−0.02 (−0.06 to 0.02)−0.002 (−0.004 to 0.0005)0.003 (−0.0005 to 0.006)
Left atrium dimension0.05 (−0.12 to 0.21)0.06 (−0.15 to 0.28)0.0004 (−0.001 to 0.003)−0.22 (−0.60 to 0.17)−0.0003 (−0.022 to 0.021)0.033 (−0.002 to 0.07)
  • All presented betas (95% CIs) are based on fully adjusted models.

  • *Age in this analysis is used as a time-varying covariate.

  • †P<0.0083 (significant at Bonferroni-corrected p value).

  • ‡P<0.05.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CHD, coronary heart disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LVDF, left ventricular diastolic function; SBP, systolic blood pressure.