Table 2

Echocardiographic characteristics of the total study population and groups of patients with low and normal SAC

VariablesTotal study population (n=1641)Low SAC (n=545)Normal SAC (n=1096)P value
Aortic root
 Aortic annulus diameter (cm)2.19±0.272.02±0.212.28±0.25<0.001
 Small aortic root (%)1721150.010
Left ventricle
 LV end-diastolic diameter (cm)5.04±0.634.96±0.625.08±0.64<0.001
 LV end-systolic diameter (cm)3.19±0.563.17±0.553.21±0.570.168
 Septal wall thickness (cm)1.16±0.281.15±0.281.16±0.280.497
 Posterior wall thickness (cm)0.89±0.190.88±0.190.89±0.190.048
 LV mass index (g/m2.7)45.8±14.745.3±14.746.1±14.80.315
 LV hypertrophy (%)3333330.915
 Ejection fraction (%)66±766±767±60.102
 Circumferential end-systolic stress (dyne/cm²)129±35138±37125±34<0.001
 Stress corrected midwall shortening (%)97±2097±2097±200.957
 Stroke volume index (mL/m²)45±1334±650±12<0.001
 Low stroke volume index (<35 mL/m²) (%)338717<0.001
 SAC (mL/m²/mm Hg)0.79±0.270.53±0.080.93±0.24<0.001
 Valvuloarterial impedance (mm Hg/mL/m²)3.9±1.25.2±1.03.3±0.7<0.001
 Peak aortic jet velocity (m/s)3.1±0.53.0±0.63.1±0.50.007
 Peak aortic gradient (mmHg)39±1438±1440±140.010
 Mean aortic gradient (mm Hg)23±922±923±90.031
 Aortic valve area (cm²)1.280.981.43<0.001
 Aortic valve area index (cm²/m²)0.67±0.230.52±0.150.75±0.23<0.001
 Energy loss (cm²)1.701.231.930.030
 Energy loss index (cm²/m²)0.90±0.470.66±0.281.02±0.49<0.001
 Dimensionless index0.34±0.100.31±0.090.35±0.10<0.001
 Severe AS by aortic valve area (<1.0 cm²) (%)30.658.316.8<0.001
 Severe AS by aortic valve area index (<0.6 cm²/m²) (%)44.175.428.5<0.001
 Severe AS by energy loss (<1.0 cm²) (%)15.434.25.9<0.001
 Severe AS by energy loss index (<0.6 cm²/m²) (%)23.948.511.5<0.001
 Inconsistently graded AS (%)27.855.414.1<0.001
Valve regurgitations
 Aortic valve regurgitation (%)60.859.761.30.279
 Mitral valve regurgitation (%)48.552.246.60.021
  • AS, aortic valve stenosis; LV, left ventricular; SAC, systemic arterial compliance.