Table 3

Living alone and loneliness as a predictor of cardiac events and mortality after 1 year

Unadjusted resultsAdjusted results
Cardiac events‡
HR (95% CI)§
All-cause mortality
HR (95% CI)§
Cardiac events‡
HR (95% CI)¶
All-cause mortality
HR (95% CI)¶
Women n=4078
 No. of events160121160121
 Living alone1.52 (1.08 to 2.15)*0.86 (0.51 to 1.43)1.29 (0.85 to 1.97)0.64 (0.33 to 1.24)
 Loneliness1.38 (0.99 to 1.93)1.90 (1.29 to 2.78)*1.34 (0.78 to 2.06)2.92 (1.55 to 5.49)**
Men n=9368
 No. of events469273469273
 Living alone1.29 (1.04 to 1.60)*1.83 (1.35 to 2.49)**1.39 (1.05 to 1.85)*1.20 (0.78 to 1.83)
 Loneliness0.98 (0.79 to 1.23)1.89 (1.46 to 2.44)**0.84 (0.62 to 1.12)2.14 (1.43 to 3.22)**
  • *P<0.05.

  • **P<0.001.

  • ‡Cardiac events: myocardial infarction, stroke, ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest.

  • §Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model with age as the time scale.

  • ¶Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model with age as the time scale adjusted for living alone (when loneliness is the independent variable), loneliness (when living alone is the independent variable), cardiac diagnosis, educational level, comorbidity (Tu comorbidity index), BMI, smoking, alcohol intake and medicine compliance.

  • BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.