Table 2

Association between living alone, loneliness and patient-reported outcomes at hospital discharge

Mental component scale
β (95% CI)‡
Physical component scale
β (95% CI)‡
HADS-A ≥8
OR (95% CI)§
HADS-D ≥8
OR (95% CI)§
HeartQoL global
β (95% CI)‡
Women n=4078
 Living alone1.33 (0.29 to 2.37)0.04 (−0.93 to 1.01)0.71 (0.59 to 0.85)**0.82 (0.67 to 1.01)−0.004 (−0.06 to 0.02)
 Loneliness−6.15 (−7.20 to −5.09)**−1.81 (−2.79 to −0.83)**2.78 (2.32 to 3.33)**2.64 (2.16 to 3.23)**−0.27 (−0.33 to −0.21)**
Men n=9368
 Living alone−0.51 (−1.22 to 0.19)−0.36 (−1.05 to 0.33)0.80 (0.69 to 0.93)*0.93 (0.79 to 1.09)−0.02 (−0.06 to 0.03)
 Loneliness−5.54 (−6.31 to −4.96)**−1.87 (−2.54 to −1.21)**3.02 (2.64 to 3.45)**2.84 (2.45 to 3.30)**−0.28 (−0.32 to −0.23)**
  • *P<0.05.

  • **P<0.001.

  • ‡Linear regression model adjusted for living alone (when loneliness is the independent variable), loneliness (when living alone is the independent variable), age, cardiac diagnosis, educational level, comorbidity (Tu comorbidity index), BMI, smoking, alcohol intake and medicine compliance.

  • §Logistic regression model adjusted for living alone (when loneliness is the independent variable), loneliness (when living alone is the independent variable), age, cardiac diagnosis, educational level, comorbidity (Tu comorbidity index), BMI, smoking, alcohol intake and medicine compliance.

  • BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; OR, odds ratio.