Table 1

Characteristics of participants in the included studies

First author (year)PopulationTotal population
(analysis population)
Age mean (SD)Female
Study population baseline weight status
Mean BMI or weight
(weight ranges)
Healthy BMI (%)Overweight (%)Obese (%)
Rosengren et al 29 Men born in Goteborg, Sweden, between 1915 and 1925 participating in the Primary Prevention Study.6903
51.5 (2.3)0%Midlife BMI 25.646468
Tedrow et al 24 Female health professionals with no prior CVD who had participated in the Women’s Health Study (USA), a RCT of aspirin versus vitamin E.34 30954.6 (7.0)100%Mean weight 70.2 kg513118
Grundvold et al 23 Prospective CVD survey of healthy male employees from five government institutions in Oslo, Norway, aged 40–59 years.2014
50.0 (5.5)0%Mean BMI 2560364
Huxley et al 30 Participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, from four study sites across the USA.14 219
(10 239)
54.2 (5.7)55%Mean BMI 27.8334027
Alonso et al 21 The Look AHEAD trial (USA) randomised people aged 45–76 with T2DM to an intensive lifestyle intervention versus diabetes support and education.5067
59.0 (7.0)60%Mean BMI 36.00100
Grundvold et al 22 People with newly diagnosed T2DM in Sweden.716959.5 (10.3)47%Mean BMI 31.1103654
Johnson et al 25 Middle-aged men in Swedish health screening programme.563347.0 (3.0)0%Mean weight 77.1 kg5743
Berkovitch et al 28 Healthy people undergoing periodic private health screening in Israel.18 29049.0 (11)27%Mean BMI 26.1424414
Diouf et al 27 Respondents of the AusDiab general population survey of adults ≥25 years in Australia.8273
(5389 who had follow-up ECG)
56.6 (11.7)52%Not stated35†42†23†
Ball et al 26 Population longitudinal cohort study involving cardiovascular disease screening via health survey and periodic study visits—The Tromsø Study, Norway14 652 (attended third and fourth survey and provided follow-up BMI data)34.1 (17.6)51%Mean BMI
Not stated
Not stated
  • Data is given for the total population unless otherwise stated.

  • *Estimated.

  • †Based on 8214 of the 8273.

  • ‡Additional 1% underweight at baseline. Figures are based on total fourth study baseline data.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; RCT, randomised controlled trial; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus .