Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study population

Overall (N=36 652)VKA
(n=25 008)
Dabigatran (n=1285)Rivaroxaban (n=5855)Apixaban (n=4504)P value
Characteristics, n (%)
Age, mean (SD)74.4 (10.5)74.3 (10.2)73.4 (11.2)74.8 (11.0)74.8 (11.0)<0.001
Female16 494 (45.0)11 186 (44.7)517 (40.2)2671 (45.6)2120 (47.1)<0.001
Townsend quintile, median (IQR)2 (1–4)2 (1–4)2 (1–3)3 (1–4)3 (1–4)
 18862 (24.2)6124 (24.5)345 (26.9)1347 (23.0)1046 (23.2)<0.001
 28269 (22.6)5706 (22.8)321 (25.0)1300 (22.2)942 (20.9)
 37330 (20.0)4964 (19.9)270 (21.0)1231 (21.0)865 (19.2)
 45864 (16.0)4065 (16.3)185 (14.4)897 (15.3)717 (15.9)
 53800 (10.4)2540 (10.2)98 (7.6)574 (9.8)588 (13.1)
 Missing2527 (6.9)1609 (6.4)66 (5.1)506 (8.6)346 (7.7)
Comorbidities, n (%)
Heart failure2700 (7.4)1908 (7.6)79 (6.2)387 (6.6)326 (7.2)0.016
Hypertension22 955 (62.6)15 824 (63.3)751 (58.4)3612 (61.7)2768 (61.5)<0.001
Diabetes mellitus6691 (18.3)4594 (18.4)210 (16.3)1058 (18.1)829 (18.4)0.31
Stroke/transient ischaemic attack4622 (12.6)3096 (12.4)160 (12.5)735 (12.6)631 (14.0)0.026
Vascular disease4793 (13.1)3316 (13.3)149 (11.6)717 (12.3)611 (13.6)0.052
Alcohol misuse977 (2.7)589 (2.4)36 (2.8)175 (3.0)177 (3.9)<0.001
Chronic kidney disease7844 (21.4)5426 (21.7)221 (17.2)1229 (21.0)968 (21.5)0.002
Liver disease100 (0.3)67 (0.3)4 (0.3)15 (0.3)14 (0.3)0.94
Hypercholesterolaemia26 328 (71.8)17 979 (71.9)915 (71.2)4172 (71.3)3262 (72.4)0.56
Smoking status
 Current smoker3374 (9.2)2272 (9.1)103 (8.0)585 (10.0)414 (9.2)<0.001
 Ex-smoker13 928 (38.0)9711 (38.8)484 (37.7)2125 (36.3)1608 (35.7)
 Never smoked18 484 (50.4)12 472 (49.9)666 (51.8)2993 (51.1)2353 (52.2)
 Not indicated866 (2.4)553 (2.2)32 (2.5)152 (2.6)129 (2.9)
Risk scores, n (%)
 CHA2DS2-VASc
 0–15856 (16.0)3887 (15.5)263 (20.5)984 (16.8)722 (16.0)<0.001
 27192 (19.6)4939 (19.8)279 (21.7)1106 (18.9)868 (19.3)
 3–417 894 (48.8)12 324 (49.3)571 (44.4)2850 (48.7)2149 (47.7)
 5–95710 (15.6)3858 (15.4)172 (13.4)915 (15.6)765 (17.0)
 HASBLED-1
 0–228 279 (77.2)19 298 (77.2)1047 (81.5)4508 (77.0)3426 (76.1)<0.001
 3–88373 (22.8)5710 (22.8)238 (18.5)1347 (23.0)1078 (23.9)
Drugs, n (%)
Aspirin20 510 (56.0)14 175 (56.7)683 (53.2)3116 (53.2)2536 (56.3)<0.001
Statin17 185 (46.9)11 803 (47.2)551 (42.9)2651 (45.3)2180 (48.4)<0.001
Blood pressure-lowering drugs29 136 (79.5)20 007 (80.0)961 (74.8)4563 (77.9)3605 (80.0)<0.001
Number of drugs, mean (SD)5.5 (2.2)5.5 (2.2)5.3 (2.2)5.5 (2.2)5.7 (2.2)<0.001
  • CHA2DS2-VASc, Congestive heart failure; Hypertension, Age≥75 years; Diabetes mellitus; Stroke, Vascular disease; Age 65-74 years; Sex category ; HASBLED-1, Hypertension; Abnormal renal/liver function; Stroke; Bleeding; Labile INR; Elderly; Drugs or alcohol; VKA, vitamin K antagonist.