Table 1

Characteristics of Knowsley and matched control LSOAs in pre-intervention period (2005–2009)

Knowsley LSOAs (n=98)Control LSOAs (n=490)
MeanSDMeanSDP value*
IMD score41.9920.6637.9621.05<0.001
Distance to hospital with A&E (km)5.472.515.383.450.554
Distance to general practice (km)1.090.661.151.060.017
Working age population unemployed (%)4.742.714.22.97<0.001
GPs per 1000 population0.640.120.630.140.06
Female population (n)793.73128.7786.96129.260.29
Population aged 50+ years (n)493.08109.81488.90126.280.495
QOF: CHD prevalence (%)4.670.344.510.69<0.001
QOF: smoking prevalence (%)25.834.7724.955.630.001
QOF: those with hypertension and blood pressure reading of 150/90 mmHg or less (%)80.33.3779.982.770.027
Emergency admissions for CVD per 100 000 population per year1181.99508.491115.14520.320.009
  • *Statistical significance of the difference between the groups tested using t-tests for normally distributed variables, or the Man-Whitney U test as a nonparametric equivalent.

  • A&E, Accident and Emergency department; CHD, coronary heart disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; GP, general practitioner; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; LSOA, lower-layer super output area; QOF, quality and outcomes framework.