Table 3

Result of difference-in-differences analysis showing the change in length of stay in days per emergency CVD admission in Knowsley following the intervention relative to the control group, 2005–2015

CoefficientLower 95% CIUpper 95% CIP value
Treatment (Knowsley=1; control=0)−2.01−3.28−0.740.002
Period (post-intervention=1; pre-intervention=0)−0.96−2.430.500.197
DiD estimator (treatment*period)1.04−0.772.840.260
  • Model includes random intercept for LSOA, and fixed effects for percent of population aged 50+ years, percent female, percent unemployed and two spline terms for time (full model results are given in online supplementary file).

  • Model based on 97 Knowsley and 489 control LSOAs, and 6446 observations.

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; DiD, difference-in-differences; LSOA, lower-layer super output area.