Table 1

Patient demographics and clinical characteristics

Normal sinus rhythm (n=162)Atrial fibrillation (n=38)P value
Age in years (mean±SD)64±1776±11<0.001
Male64%52%0.64
Ischaemic heart disease32%50%0.09
Hypertension51%50%0.36
Heart failure13%44%<0.001
Diabetes20%25%0.53
Stroke/TIA16%17%0.93
Peripheral vascular disease10%14%0.07
Known atrial flutter/fibrillation9%95%<0.001
History of palpitations26%79%<0.001
Mean CHA2DS2VASc score230.02
Antiarrhythmic medications (any)6%44%0.001
Antiarrhythmic medications
 Flecainide1%0%
 Beta-blocker22%100%
 Amiodarone/sotalol5%14%
 Calcium channel blocker1%0%
 Digoxin1%14%
Anticoagulation
 Warfarin0%0%
 Apixaban4%57%
 Rivaroxaban4%21%
 Dabigatran0%14%
 Heparin0%7%
  • P values<0.05 demonstrate a significant difference between patients with normal sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation. Patients in atrial fibrillation were older, with a higher incidence of palpitations and heart failure.

  • TIA, transient ischaemic attack.