Table 1

Baseline characteristics based on tub bathing frequency

Tub bathing frequency
≤2 times/week3–4 times/weekAlmost daily or every dayP value*
Number at risk1911654721 618
 Age (years)
 Women (%)44.350.253.6<0.01
 Current drinker (%)34.339.941.6<0.01
 Current smoker (%)32.229.929.0<0.01
 Leisure-time sports ≥1 time/week (%)10.814.215.4<0.01
 Body mass index ≥25 (%)25.226.825.10.88
 Junior high school education (%)63.354.247.3<0.01
 High school education (%)23.332.138.8<0.01
 University or higher education (%)11.612.412.40.22
 Office worker (%)23.931.432.4<0.01
 Manual labour worker (%)60.855.455.0<0.01
 Not employed (%)15.313.212.6<0.01
 Average sleep duration (hours/day)<0.01
 High perceived mental stress (%)24.424.724.30.93
 High life enjoyment (%)18.417.720.20.05
 History of hypertension (%)15.916.314.60.10
 Medication use for hypertension (%)13.012.911.90.16
 History of diabetes mellitus (%)<0.01
 Medication use for diabetes mellitus (%)<0.01
 Medication use for hypercholesterolaemia (%)
 Vegetable intake (g/day)156.4173.7190.0<0.01
 Fruit intake (g/day)105.7117.5124.7<0.01
 Fish intake (g/day)49.351.357.9<0.01
 Soybean intake (g/day)36.937.238.8<0.01
  • *The overall difference across the tub bathing frequency was tested using the multiple linear regression for continuous variables and logistic regression for categorical variables, adjusting for age and sex.