Table 1

Baseline characteristics

VariableNormal LAP
(n=31)
Elevated LAP
(n=173)
P value
Age, mean (SD)81.8 (7.4)79.8 (8.2)0.21
Male71.0%64.2%0.46
White96.8%97.1%0.92
Known coronary artery disease54.8%60.1%0.58
Prior myocardial infarction12.9%28.9%0.06
Prior cardiovascular surgery38.7%48.8%0.30
Hypertension77.4%74.6%0.74
Diabetes mellitus22.6%17.9%0.54
Atrial fibrillation45.2%65.9%0.03
Chronic lung disease45.2%17.3%0.0005
 Mild19.4%8.7%0.07
 Moderate9.7%2.9%0.07
 Severe16.1%5.8%0.04
Mean creatinine, mg/dL, (SD)1.59 (0.8)1.50 (0.8)0.61
Heart failure within 2 weeks87.1%94.8%0.11
Body mass index, kg/m2, (SD)26.1 (5.2)27.7 (5.8)0.14
Mean NYHA class, (SD)2.9 (0.7)3.2 (0.5)0.04
Mean ejection fraction, (SD)53.4% (12.4)52.4% (14.1)0.71
Ejection fraction <60%61.3%60.1%0.90
Left ventricular end-systolic diameter, mm, (SD)39.2 (8.8)39.5 (10.6)0.89
Severe mitral regurgitation71.0%76.9%0.48
 Primary mechanism61.3%49.7%0.23
 Secondary mechanism29.0%40.5%0.22
 Mixed mechanism9.7%9.8%0.98
Effective regurgitant orifice area, cm2, (SD)0.40 (0.1)0.47 (0.2)0.02
Regurgitant volume, mL, (SD)62.3 (11.9)72.1 (21.0)0.02
Mean LAP, mm Hg, (SD)10.5 (2.0)19.0 (4.6)<0.0001
Mean V wave height, mm Hg, (SD)16.5 (6.2)32.5 (10.1)<0.0001
V wave to SBP ratio, (SD)0.16 (0.06)0.30 (0.09)<0.0001
  • LAP, left atrial pressure; NYHA, New York Heart Association; SBP, systolic blood pressure.