Table 1

Reported cardiovascular complications in COVID-19

ComplicationIncidenceNotes
Acute cardiac injury*8%–22%.3 13–15
Up to 22% in ICU.
Up to 59% in those who died.3
Most commonly reported cardiovascular complication.
Pulmonary thrombosis, arterial and venous thromboembolism16%–49% in ICU (case series).18–20 22 Deep vein thrombosis, PE, ischaemic stroke, arterial thromboembolism.
Heart failureFew data: 52% in those who died and 12% in those who recovered.3 Mechanisms not completely clear, probably related to myocardial lesion and septic shock.
Acute coronary syndromesCase reports17: 44.4% with ST segment elevation on ECG had clinical diagnosis of MI, 50% underwent coronary angiography, with obstructive disease detected in 2/3.High variability in presentation and prevalence of non-obstructive disease, poor prognosis.
Arrhythmia16.7% overall; 44.4 in severe illness, 8.9% in mild cases.15 Both tachyarrhythmia and bradycardia can occur (limited data).
MyocarditisCase reports.26–29 At present demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 in one report but in macrophages, not myocardial cells.25
Pericardial diseasesCase reports.31 32 Pericardial effusions.
  • *Defined as elevation in cardiac troponin I >99th percentile upper reference limit.

  • ICU, Intensive Care Unit; MI, myocardial infarction; PE, pulmonary embolism; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2.