Table 2

Stress echocardiographic characteristics

DCM (n=35)Athlete in the
grey zone (n=25)
Athlete controls (n=24)P value
Total watts234.6±48.0308.6±59.6*293.5±59.6*<0.0001
Peak LVEDV (mL)176.3±40.3†167.4±17.5†140.7±22.8<0.0001
Peak LVESV (mL)86.2±34.7†56.2±11.3†40.3±4.9<0.0001
Peak SV (mL)90.1±22.8111.2±15.6101.8±17.9<0.0001
Peak LV ejection fraction (%)52.0.±11.567.6±3.9*71.4±3.4*<0.0001
Change in LV ejection fraction (%)4.9±8.917.7±4.113.1±3.1<0.0001
Peak mitral E wave1.34±0.281.30±0.271.46±0.240.217
Peak Lateral E′ (cm/s)21.5±5.523.6±5.223.8±5.80.266
Peak Lateral E/E′6.6±2.35.9±2.05.86±1.840.463
Peak S′ (cm/s)15.6±5.022.1±6.1*22.5±6.6*<0.0001
Peak SBP (mm Hg)189.5±26.7210.3±24.7*202.3±27.2*0.007
Peak DBP (mm Hg)98.0±11.0102.3±13.994.1±14.500.018
Peak HR (bpm)148.6±15.4‡162.2±11.1150.6±9.7‡0.01
  • *Non-significant between grey zone and control athletes.

  • †Non-significant between grey zone and DCM.

  • ‡Non-significant between DCM and athlete controls.

  • bpm, beats per minute; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DCM, dilated cardiomyopathy; HR, heart rate; LV, left ventricular; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SV, stroke volume.