Table 3

Risk of severe/fatal COVID-19 or death among hypertensive subjects treated with RAAS inhibitors versus untreated subjects, overall and by drug class

OutcomesNo. of studies
(sample)
Pooled
OR (95% CI)
P valueI2, %
1. Severe/fatal COVID-19* (in users vs non users):
ACE inhibitors only10 14 15 17 19 5 (7489)0.90 (0.65 to 1.26)0.680
ARBs only10 13–15 19 5 (7462)0.92 (0.75 to 1.12)0.425
ARBs/ACE inhibitors10 11 14 15 19 5 (11 334)1.00 (0.84 to 1.18)0.950
2. Death from COVID-19 (in users vs non users):
a. Main analysis:
ARBs/ACE inhibitors10 12 16 18 4 (2412)0.88 (0.68 to 1.14)0.324
b. Sensitivity analysis:†
ARBs/ACE inhibitors10 12 16 18 25 5 (4758)0.85 (0.71 to 1.03)0.1012
  • All meta-analyses are based on a generic inverse variance approach.

  • *Including admission into intensive care unit, need for mechanical ventilation or death.

  • †Including one retracted study.25 26

  • ARBs, angiotensin receptor blockers; RAAS, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone.