Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

NFirst authorJournalCountryStudy designNo. of infected patients
(with severe/lethal COVID-19)
No. of hypertensive patients (under ACEi/ARBs)Mean age
(SD)
% malesFollow
-up
Extracted outcome(s)Method for adjustment
1Bean17 Submitted
(MedRxiv)
UKCohort205 (53)105 (38)63.0 (20.0)51.77 daysSevere/lethal COVID-19
(ICU and death).
Logistic regression adjusted for age, gender and comorbidities.
2Bravi10 SubmittedItalyCase–control1603 (192)543 (450)58.0 (20.9)47.324 days(1) Severe/lethal COVID-19 (mech. ventilation, ICU and death); (2) death.Logistic regression adjusted for age, gender and comorbidities
3de Abajo11 The Lancet SpainCase–control1139 (393) *6261 (3950)*69.1 (15.4)61.0Severe COVID-19 (hospital admission).Logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, region (matching variables) and comorbidities.
4Giorgi Rossi12 Submitted
(MedRxiv)
ItalyCohort2653 (217)430 (108)63.250.114 daysDeath.Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for age, gender and Charlson Index.
5Liu13 Submitted
(MedRxiv)
ChinaCase-control511 (38†)78 (22)65.2 (10.7)55.2NRSevere/lethal COVID-19
(dyspnoea, resp. rate ≥30/min,
SaO2 ≤93%, mech. ventilation).
Logistic regression adjusted for gender and medications.
6Mancia14 NEJM ItalyCase–control6272 (617)3586 (1844)68.0 (13.0)63.2Severe/lethal COVID-19
(ICU and death),
Logistic regression adjusted forage, gender and comorbidities.
7Mehra‡25 NEJM
(Retracted)
MulticountryCohort8910 (515)2346 (1326)49.0 (16.0)60.040 daysDeath.Logistic regression adjusted for age, race, comorbidities and medications.
8Mehta19 JAMA
Cardiol
USACohort1735 (272)682 (202)64.0 (14.0)58.5NRSevere/lethal COVID-19
(ICU and mech. ventilation).
Logistic regression adjusted for age, gender and comorbidities.
9Reynolds15 NEJM USACase-control5894 (1002)2573 (2141)64.0 (15.6)50.8Severe/lethal COVID-19 (mech. ventilation, ICU and death).Analysis propensity score-matched for age, gender, race, BMI, smoke, comorbidities and medications.
10Tedeschi16 Clin Infect
Dis
ItalyCohort609 (179)311 (175)68.0 (18.5)68.06 daysDeath.Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for age, gender and comorbidities.
11Zhang18 Circ Res ChinaCohort1128 (99)1128 (188)64.0 (9.0)53.328 daysDeath.Analysis propensity score-matched for age, gender, comorbidities and in-hospital therapy.
  • *Cases were COVID-19 patients; controls were SARS-CoV-2 negative subjects extracted from primary healthcare databases: as such, the number of hypertensive subjects includes both cases and controls and is higher than the number of COVID-19 patients.

  • †Number of patients with severe COVID-19 among only those with hypertension.

  • ‡Included only in sensitivity analyses.

  • ARBs, Angiotensin receptor blockers; ICU, intensive care unit; mech., mechanical; NR, not reported; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.