Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with clinical HCM and mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy

VariableClinical HCM
(n=127)
Mutation carriers
(n=53)
P value
Age (years)53±1441±11<0.001
Male, n (%)76 (60)20 (38)0.007
Hypertension, n (%)44 (35)4 (8)<0.001
Implantable cardiac defibrillator, n (%)10 (8)0 (0)0.04
History of atrial fibrillation, n (%)20 (16)0 (0)0.002
NYHA functional class ≥2, n (%)56 (44)1 (2)<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)26±325±40.05
Medication use
 Beta-blocker, n (%)59 (47)2 (4)<0.001
 Calcium channel blocker, n (%)17 (13)0 (0)0.005
Echocardiography
 Interventricular septum thickness (mm)16 (13–20)10 (8–11)<0.001
 Posterior wall thickness (mm)10 (10–12)9 (7–9)<0.001
 Left atrial diameter (mm)43 (39–49)38 (32–40)<0.001
 LVOT gradient ≥30 mm Hg, n (%)18 (14)0 (0)0.01
Exercise stress test
 Resting heart rate (beats/min)74±1375±110.553
 Resting systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)129±21118±160.001
 Heart rate at maximum exercise (beats/min)145±23164±17<0.001
 Maximum systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)180±32172±290.140
 Achieved exercise load (W)140 (120–180)160 (130–190)0.02
 Relative achieved exercise load (%)89 (74–107)100 (89–112)0.005
 Achieved load <80% of expected, n (%)45 (35)8 (15)0.006
 Duration of exercise (min)13 (9–17)15 (12–18)0.01
 HRPP (mm Hg*beats per min)26178±609928214±55780.04
  • Data are described as means± SDs, medians with IQRs or numbers with percentages.

  • HCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; HRPP, heart rate pressure product; LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract; NYHA, New York Heart Association.