Table 3

Univariable associations with a postexercise troponin rise: clinical, biomarker and MRI characteristics

VariableClinical HCM with troponin rise
(n=23)
Clinical HCM without troponin rise (n=104)P value
Age (years)51±1554±140.405
Male, n (%)14 (61)62 (60)0.912
Hypertension, n (%)7 (30)37 (36)0.639
NYHA functional class ≥2, n (%)12 (52)44 (42)0.388
Body mass index (kg/m2)26±426±30.728
Medication use
Beta-blocker, n (%)8 (35)51 (49)0.215
Calcium channel blocker, n (%)2 (9)15 (14)0.736
Mutation type (n=115)(n=21)(n=94)
No mutation found, n (%)9 (43)38 (40)0.121*
MYBPC3, n (%)11 (52)44 (47)
MYH7, n (%)0 (0)10 (11)
other, n (%)1 (5)2 (2)
Exercise stress test
Resting heart rate (beats/min)79±1573±120.03
Heart rate at maximum exercise (beats/min)157±19143±230.004
Resting systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)128±18129±220.860
Maximum systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)179±30180±320.959
Achieved exercise load (W)170 (120-200)140 (113-178)0.125
Relative achieved exercise load (in %)93±2090±210.579
Achieved load <80% of expected, n (%)7 (30)38 (37)0.580
Duration of exercise (min)15 (10-18)13 (8-17)0.223
HRPP (mm Hg*beats per min)28119±488925740±62780.09
Highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (ng/L)8.8 (4.8–19.9)8.2 (3.3–13.1)0.195
Elevated troponin (≥14 ng/L), n (%)9 (39)22 (21)0.07
CMRi (n=109) (n=20)(n=89)
LV mass indexed by BSA (g/m2)72 (53-112)61 (52-75)0.112
Increased LV mass, n (%)†7 (35)16 (18)0.127
Maximal wall thickness (mm)20 (15-23)17 (14-20)0.02
Presence of LGE, n (%)17 (85)51 (57)0.02
Presence of HighT2, n (%)13 (65)15 (19)<0.001
  • Data are described as means±SDs, medians with IQRs or numbers with percentages.

  • *No significant differences among subgroups.

  • †Defined as >91 g/m2 for men, and >69 g/m2 for women.19

  • BSA, body surface area; CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; HCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; HighT2, elevated signal intensity on T2-weighted images; HRPP, heart rate pressure product; LGE, late gadolinium enhancement; LV, left ventricular; NYHA, New York Heart Association.