Table 3

Pathological findings of the cardiopulmonary systems in death related to coronaviruses

Yao et al 15 ChinaCovid-1963/M,
Alveolar exudates, interstitial inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis, hyaline membrane formation.
Positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, positive viral inclusions.
Myocardial hypertrophy and multifocal necrosis, interstitial inflammatory infiltration.
No viral inclusions; negative RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2.
Diffused hyaline thrombosis in microcirculation in multiple organs.
Xu et al 82 ChinaCOVID-1950/MBilateral diffuse alveolar damage with cellular fibromyxoid exudates, desquamation of pneumocytes and hyaline membrane formation, pulmonary oedema, interstitial mononuclear inflammatory infiltration.A few interstitial inflammatory infiltrations.NA
Tian et al 83 ChinaCOVID-1978/F,
Diffused alveolar damage, hyaline membrane formation and vascular congestion, inflammatory cellular infiltration, focal interstitial thickening (case 3), large area of intra-alveolar haemorrhage and intra-alveolar fibrin cluster formation (case 4).
Positive RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 in 1/3 patients.
Various degrees of focal oedema, interstitial fibrosis and myocardial hypertrophy; no inflammatory infiltration. Positive RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 in 1/2 patients (both patients with elevated troponin).Fibrinoid necrosis of the small vessels of lung (case 4).
Fox et al 84 USACOVID-19Four patients, range:
44–76 years
Pleural effusion, bilateral pulmonary oedema, patches of haemorrhage, diffuse alveolar damage, lymphocytic infiltration, hyaline membrane and fibrin. Viral inclusion.Pericardial effusion, cardiomegaly with RV dilatation, scattered individual myocyte necrosis.Thrombi and lymphocytic infiltration of small vessels of lung.
Lang et al 85 ChinaSARS73/M,
Oedema and homogeneous fibrinous deposition of alveolar walls, desquamation of pneumocyte; exudate in alveolar space, hyaline membrane formation; inflammatory infiltration.
Positive RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-1 in all three patients.
Atrophy of cardiac muscle, lipofuscin deposition in cytoplasm, proliferation of interstitial cells and lymphocytes.Fibrous thrombi in pulmonary vessels.
Ding et al 18 ChinaSARS62/F,
Extensive consolidation, pulmonary oedema, haemorrhagic infarction, desquamative alveolitis and bronchitis, exudation, hyaline membrane formation, focal necrosis. Viral inclusion.Myocardial stromal oedema, inflammatory infiltration, hyaline degeneration and lysis of cardiac muscle.Diffused inflammatory infiltration of vessel walls, edematous endothelial cells, fibrinoid necrosis of veins in multiple organs, mixed thrombi in small veins and hyaline thrombi in microvessels.
Farcas et al 19 CanadaSARS21 patientsDiffuse alveolar damage.
Positive RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-1 in 9/13 patients.
Positive RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-1 in 7/18 patients.NA
Ng et al 21 UAEMERS45/MDiffuse alveolar damage with denuding of bronchiolar epithelium, prominent hyaline membranes, alveolar fibrin deposits.Diffuse myocyte hypertrophy, patchy fibrosis.NA
Alsaad et al 20 Saudi ArabiaMERS33/MHyaline membrane formation, diffuse alveolar damage, parenchymal necrosis. Viral inclusion.No significant inflammatory infiltration.Subendothelial inflammatory infiltration of interstitial arteries of the lung.
  • MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome; NA, not available; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome.