Table 3

Echocardiographic assessment

Overall (n=200)PH (n=24)No PH (n=176)P valueRVD (n=29)No RVD (n=171)P value
Clinical setting at time of TTE
Window quality0.528*0.616*
 Good112/200 (56.0)12/24 (50.0)100/176 (56.8)15/29 (51.7)97/171 (56.7)
 Sufficient/suboptimal88/200 (44.0)12/24 (50.0)76/176 (43.2)14/29 (48.3)74/171 (43.3)
Time from hospital admission to TTE (days)7 (3–13)8 (4–11)7 (3–13)0.9018 (3–10)7 (3–13)0.862
SBP (mm Hg)120 (107–128)113 (105–121)120 (110–130)0.156115 (100–120)120 (107–130)0.239
HR (beats/min)80 (70–88)80 (75–90)80 (70–88)0.29678 (74–85)80 (70–88)0.724
NIV <0.0010.905†
 Intermittent cycles (no NIV during TTE)38/200 (19.0)5/24 (20.8)33/176 (18.5)5/29 (17.2)33/171 (19.3)
 NIV during TTE24/200 (12.0)9/24 (37.5)15/176 (8.5)4/29 (13.8)20/171 (11.7)
SpO2/FiO2 283 (167–394)166 (110–280)312 (193–448) <0.001 286 (188–457)283 (167–354)0.622
TTE findings
Basal RVEDD (mm)36 (32–40)42 (38–48)36 (32–39) <0.001 38 (35–42)36 (32–40)0.129
Mid RVEDD (mm)30 (26–33)37 (31–40)30 (26–32) <0.001 32 (30–36)30 (26–33) 0.028
RV length (mm)65 (60–73)70 (60–73)65 (60–72)0.48869 (61–72)65 (60–73)0.561
Proximal RVOT diameter (mm)30 (27–34)30 (27–36)30 (27–34)0.89330 (27–39)30 (27–34)0.364
TAPSE (mm)22 (20–25)20 (17–22)22 (20–25) 0.004 16 (15–19)23 (20–25) <0.001
S’ TDI (cm/s)13 (11–15)12 (9–13)13 (11–15) 0.004 9 (8–9)14 (12–15) <0.001
Tricuspid regurgitation <0.001 0.015
 None/trivial123/200 (61.5)0/24 (0.0)123/176 (69.9)14/29 (48.3)100/171 (63.7)
 Mild63/200 (31.5)12/24 (50.0)51/176 (29.0)9/29 (31.0)54/171 (31.6)
 Moderate14/200 (7.0)12/24 (50.0)2/176 (1.1)6/29 (20.7)8/171 (4.7)
 Severe0/200 (0.0)0/24 (0.0)0/176 (0.0)0/29 (0.0)0/171 (0.0)
RA area (cm2)14 (12–16)16 (13–21)14 (11–16)0.06214 (11–21)14 (12–16)0.725
SPAP (mm Hg)29 (23–33)42 (39–47)25 (22–30) <0.001 30 (25–40)28 (23–31)0.064
LVEF (%)59 (55–63)59 (56–65)59 (55–63)0.90059 (50–63)59 (56–63)0.085
CVP (mm Hg) <0.001 0.006
 0–5152/200 (76.0)10/24 (41.7)142/176 (80.7)17/29 (58.6)135/171 (79.0)
 5–10 38/200 (19.0)8/24 (33.3)30/176 (17.1)7/29 (24.1)31/171 (18.1)
 10–2010/200 (5.0)6/24 (25.0)4/176 (2.3)5/29 (17.2)5/171 (2.9)
  • Data are presented as n/N (%) or median (Q25–Q75).

  • Bold values represent significant p values.

  • 2 test.

  • †Fisher’s exact test.

  • CVP, central venous pressure; HR, heart rate; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; PH, pulmonary hypertension; RV, right ventricle; RVD, right ventricular dysfunction; RVEDD, right ventricle end-diastolic diameter; RVOT, right ventricle outflow tract; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SPAP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure; S’TDI, tissue Doppler imaging S wave; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TTE, transthoracic echocardiography.