Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics

Overall
(n=200)
PH
(n=24)
No PH
(n=176)
P valueRVD
(n=29)
No RVD
(n=171)
P value
Age (years)62 (55–74)76 (67–82)62 (54–72) <0.001 65 (55–76)62 (54–74)0.813
Male sex131/200 (65.5)12/24 (50.0)119/176 (67.6)0.089*20/29 (69.0)111/171 (64.9)0.671*
BMI (kg/m2)25.7 (24.2–28.8)24.2 (22.1–27.3)25.9 (24.2–29.3)0.05927.5 (24.8–29.0)25.4 (23.8–28.6)0.068
Smoking0.067†1.000†
 Prior smoking33/200 (16.5)8/24 (33.3)25/176 (14.2)5/29 (17.2)28/171 (16.4)
 Current smoking8/200 (4.0)0/24 (0.0)8/176 (4.6)1/29 (3.5)7/171 (4.1)
Dyslipidaemia45/200 (22.5)2/24 (8.3)43/176 (24.4)0.057†3/29 (10.3)42/171 (24.6)0.099†
Diabetes mellitus 0.0490.228†
 Non-insulin-dependent28/200 (14.0)5/24 (20.8)23/176 (13.1)3/29 (10.3)25/171 (14.6)
 Insulin-dependent9/200 (4.5)3/24 (12.5)6/176 (3.4)3/29 (10.3)6/171 (3.5)
Hypertension84/200 (42.0)16/24 (66.7)68/176 (38.6) 0.009*11/29 (37.9)73/171 (42.7)0.631*
Family history of CAD15/200 (7.5)1/24 (4.2)14/176 (8.0)1.000†4/29 (13.8)11/171 (6.4)0.241†
Prior MI17/200 (8.5)4/24 (16.7)13/176 (7.4)0.129†7/29 (24.1)10/171 (5.9) 0.005
Prior PCI13/200 (6.5)1/24 (4.2)12/176 (6.8)1.000†3/29 (10.3)10/171 (5.9)0.408†
Prior CABG6/200 (3.0)2/24 (8.3)4/176 (2.3)0.153†5/29 (17.2)1/171 (0.6) <0.001
Prior valve intervention4/200 (2.0)0/24 (0.0)4/176 (2.3)1.000†4/29 (13.8)0/171 (0.0) <0.001
Prior AF or flutter22/200 (11.0)10/24 (41.7)12/176 (6.8) <0.0019/29 (31.0)13/171 (7.6) 0.001
Prior HF diagnosis7/200 (3.5)4/24 (16.7)3/176 (1.7) 0.0045/29 (17.2)2/171 (1.2) 0.001
Known cardiomyopathy5/200 (2.5)3/24 (12.5)2/176 (1.1) 0.0134/29 (13.8)1/171 (0.6) 0.002
Prior stroke or TIA9/200 (4.5)2/24 (8.3)7/176 (4.0)0.295†2/29 (6.9)7/171 (4.1)0.621†
Peripheral artery disease13/200 (6.5)3/24 (12.5)10/176 (5.7)0.193†2/29 (6.9)11/171 (6.4)1.000†
CKD stages IV–V (eGFR ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2)12/200 (6.0)5/24 (20.8)7/176 (4.0) 0.0071/29 (3.5)11/171 (6.4)1.000†
Dialysis3/200 (1.5)1/24 (4.2)2/176 (1.1)0.320†0/29 (0.0)3/171 (1.8)1.000†
COPD11/200 (5.5)4/24 (16.7)7/176 (4.0) 0.0303/29 (10.3)8/171 (4.7)0.202†
History of cancer32/200 (16.0)4/24 (16.7)28/176 (15.9)1.000†4/29 (13.8)28/171 (16.4)1.000†
Known autoimmune disease9/200 (4.5)1/24 (4.2)8/176 (4.6)1.000†3/29 (10.3)6/171 (3.5)0.126†
Time from symptoms onset to hospital admission (days)7 (3–10)7 (3–9)8 (3–11)0.2245 (3–8)8 (4–11) 0.034
PaO2/FiO2 on hospital admission243 (132–314)210 (85–286)248 (147–317)0.060238 (153–276)245 (131–317)0.241
 200 < PaO2/FiO2≤30072/187 (38.5)11/23 (47.8)61/164 (37.2)0.193†15/27 (55.6)57/160 (35.6)0.169†
 100 < PaO2/FiO2≤20033/187 (17.7)3/23 (13.0)30/164 (18.3)3/27 (11.1)30/160 (18.8)
 PaO2/FiO2≤10030/187 (16.0)6/23 (26.1)24/164 (14.6)5/27 (18.5)25/160 (15.6)
PaCO2 on hospital admission32 (29–36)31 (27–37)32 (29–36)0.47534 (30–37)32 (29–36)0.412
  • Data are presented as n/N (%) or median (Q25–Q75).

  • Bold values represent significant p values.

  • 2 test.

  • †Fisher’s exact test.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CAD, coronary artery disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HF, heart failure; MI, myocardial infarction; PAD, peripheral artery disease; PCI, percutaneous coronary angioplasty; PH, pulmonary hypertension; RVD, right ventricular dysfunction; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.