Table 1

Adjusted HRs (95% CI) for risk of COVID-19 positive test associated with ACE inhibitor and ARB exposure by ethnic group

ACE inhibitorP valueARBP value
Adjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
White0.66 (0.63 to 0.70)<0.0010.56 (0.52 to 0.62)<0.001
Indian0.74 (0.61 to 0.90)0.0030.66 (0.52 to 0.82)<0.001
Pakistani0.83 (0.64 to 1.09)0.1820.78 (0.57 to 1.06)0.114
Bangladeshi0.97 (0.72 to 1.31)0.8470.74 (0.49 to 1.13)0.164
Other Asian0.81 (0.64 to 1.03)0.0840.96 (0.73 to 1.23)0.726
Caribbean1.05 (0.87 to 1.28)0.4800.70 (0.53 to 0.92)0.010
Black African1.31 (1.08 to 1.59)0.0051.24 (0.99 to 1.58)0.062
Chinese0.73 (0.30 to 1.79)0.5751.53 (0.77 to 3.01)0.223
Other ethnic group0.82 (0.67 to 1.05)0.1221.09 (0.86 to 1.39)0.475
  • HRs are comparing risks of COVID-19 in users versus non-users of ACE inhibitor and ARB, and are adjusted for age, sex, deprivation, geographical region, comorbidities (including hypertension included as a binary variable) and other medications listed in table 1 of Hippisley-Cox and colleagues.1

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.