Table 1

Baseline characteristics of men and women aged 20–99 years registered with QResearch practices on 1 January 2020 and characteristics of patients with each of the two primary outcomes

CategoryTotal population (column %)COVID-19 positive (column %)COVID-19 ICU admission (column %)
Total population8 275 94919 4861286
Male4 115 973 (49.73)9376 (48.12)940 (73.09)
Age (years)
 Mean age (SD)48.47 (18.41)62.18 (20.84)59.19 (12.52)
 20–393 135 980 (37.89)3487 (17.89)95 (7.39)
 40–491 399 562 (16.91)2474 (12.70)159 (12.36)
 50–591 386 093 (16.75)2927 (15.02)366 (28.46)
 60–691 037 077 (12.53)2462 (12.63)387 (30.09)
 70–79802 224 (9.69)2734 (14.03)242 (18.82)
 80+ years515 013 (6.22)5402 (27.72)37 (2.88)
Material deprivation
 Quintile 1 (most affluent)1 877 761 (22.69)3834 (19.68)214 (16.64)
 Quintile 21 819 942 (21.99)3970 (20.37)215 (16.72)
 Quintile 31 671 924 (20.20)4205 (21.58)237 (18.43)
 Quintile 41 490 725 (18.01)3846 (19.74)248 (19.28)
 Quintile 5 (most deprived)1 415 597 (17.10)3631 (18.63)372 (28.93)
 Ethnicity recorded6 691 660 (80.86)16 379 (84.06)1111 (86.39)
 White/not recorded6 960 062 (84.10)14 976 (76.86)788 (61.28)
 Indian228 467 (2.76)847 (4.35)66 (5.13)
 Pakistani147 397 (1.78)399 (2.05)48 (3.73)
 Bangladeshi110 368 (1.33)256 (1.31)44 (3.42)
 Other Asian146 174 (1.77)661 (3.39)70 (5.44)
 Caribbean93 949 (1.14)557 (2.86)59 (4.59)
 Black African199 200 (2.41)812 (4.17)106 (8.24)
 Chinese82 984 (1.00)87 (0.45)12 (0.93)
 Other ethnic group307 348 (3.71)891 (4.57)93 (7.23)
Geographical region
 East Midlands216 535 (2.62)238 (1.22)13 (1.01)
 East of England296 236 (3.58)562 (2.88)19 (1.48)
 London2 080 923 (25.14)6059 (31.09)588 (45.72)
 North East194 027 (2.34)600 (3.08)26 (2.02)
 North West1 471 787 (17.78)4042 (20.74)220 (17.11)
 South Central1 104 114 (13.34)2600 (13.34)123 (9.56)
 South East927 208 (11.20)1982 (10.17)119 (9.25)
 South West899 722 (10.87)1055 (5.41)52 (4.04)
 West Midlands781 297 (9.44)1759 (9.03)95 (7.39)
 Yorkshire and Humber304 100 (3.67)589 (3.02)31 (2.41)
Smoking status
 Never smoker4 745 455 (57.34)12 036 (61.77)791 (61.51)
 Ex-smoker1 774 275 (21.44)5715 (29.33)427 (33.20)
 Light smoker1 109 154 (13.40)1102 (5.66)47 (3.65)
 Moderate smoker213 629 (2.58)155 (0.80)7 (0.54)
 Heavy smoker98 748 (1.19)97 (0.50)2 (0.16)
 Smoking not recorded334 688 (4.04)381 (1.96)12 (0.93)
Body mass index (BMI)
 BMI <20 kg/m2 543 347 (6.57)1076 (5.52)13 (1.01)
 BMI 20–24.99 kg/m2 2 438 268 (29.46)4913 (25.21)165 (12.83)
 BMI 25–29.99 kg/m2 2 344 187 (28.33)5925 (30.41)410 (31.88)
 BMI 30–34.99 kg/m2 1 090 042 (13.17)3435 (17.63)341 (26.52)
 BMI 35+ kg/m2 619 487 (7.49)2409 (12.36)294 (22.86)
 BMI not recorded1 240 618 (14.99)1728 (8.87)63 (4.90)
Concurrent morbidity
 Chronic renal disease338 693 (4.09)3442 (17.66)152 (11.82)
 Asthma1 089 645 (13.17)2764 (14.18)178 (13.84)
 COPD195 115 (2.36)1421 (7.29)46 (3.58)
 Cardiovascular disease433 631 (5.24)3552 (18.23)141 (10.96)
 Atrial fibrillation201 911 (2.44)1870 (9.60)41 (3.19)
 Congestive cardiac failure97 118 (1.17)1211 (6.21)25 (1.94)
 Type 1 diabetes39 094 (0.47)208 (1.07)23 (1.79)
 Type 2 diabetes536 516 (6.48)4027 (20.67)379 (29.47)
 Hypertension diagnosis1 414 021 (17.09)7585 (38.93)584 (45.41)
 No medication256 762 (3.10)1804 (9.26)93 (7.23)
 Monotherapy773 675 (9.35)3754 (19.27)249 (19.36)
 Dual therapy516 178 (6.24)2540 (13.03)215 (16.72)
 Triple therapy190 856 (2.31)1005 (5.16)119 (9.25)
Long-term medication
 ACE inhibitor645 577 (7.80)2864 (14.70)266 (20.68)
 ARB308 881 (3.73)1417 (7.27)154 (11.98)
 Beta-blockers525 149 (6.35)3185 (16.35)170 (13.22)
 Calcium channel blockers654 171 (7.90)3293 (16.90)353 (27.45)
 Other diabetes drugs151 074 (1.83)1183 (6.07)148 (11.51)
 Sulfonylureas98 908 (1.20)808 (4.15)110 (8.55)
 Biguanides328 387 (3.97)2135 (10.96)262 (20.37)
 Anticoagulants207 061 (2.50)1872 (9.61)43 (3.34)
 Antiplatelets410 816 (4.96)3049 (15.65)172 (13.37)
 Statins1 073 039 (12.97)5616 (28.82)487 (37.87)
 Thiazides220 143 (2.66)803 (4.12)96 (7.47)
 Potassium-sparing diuretics46 825 (0.57)417 (2.14)11 (0.86)
  • Values are number (%) of patients unless indicated otherwise.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU, intensive care unit.