Table 1

Comparison of patient baseline characteristics

Non-user (n=115)DPP-4 inhibitor user (n=97)Overall p value
Unfavourable (n=69)Favourable (n=28)
Age, years72.8±8.170.3±8.573.1±7.40.094
Male, n (%)61 (53.0)36 (52.2)14 (50.0)0.958
Hypertension, n (%)97 (84.3)65 (94.2)23 (82.1)0.104
Stage III or IV chronic kidney disease, n (%)16 (13.9)7 (10.1)7 (25.0)0.363
Coronary artery disease, n (%)45 (39.1)22 (31.9)16 (57.1)0.069
Ischaemic stroke, n (%)16 (14.0)11 (15.9)2 (7.1)0.517
Statin, n (%)76 (66.1)54 (78.3)23 (82.1)0.092
ACE inhibitor or ARB, n (%)75 (65.2)47 (68.1)23 (82.1)0.224
Beta-receptor blocker, n (%)55 (47.8)34 (49.3)11 (39.3)0.657
Exposure to antidiabetic drugs, n (%)
 Metformin80 (69.6)63 (91.3)19 (67.9)0.002*
 Thiazolidinediones15 (13.0)8 (11.6)3 (10.7)0.925
 Sulfonylurea67 (58.3)36 (52.2)23 (82.1)0.023†
 Meglitinides8 (7.0)4 (5.8)2 (7.1)0.947
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors18 (15.7)7 (10.1)1 (3.6)0.175
 Insulin47 (40.9)8 (11.6)9 (32.1)<0.001*
Baseline total cholesterol, mg/dL159.3±35.5161.5±39.1146.6±26.10.164
Baseline LDL cholesterol, mg/dL96.3±30.096.3±30.093.4±22.30.769
Baseline creatinine, mg/dL1.01±0.440.99±0.771.10±0.360.677
Baseline eGFR66.5±19.966.5±19.958.3±15.40.063
Baseline HbA1c, %7.2±1.27.0±1.17.2±2.10.536
AV maximal velocity, m/s2.9±0.32.9±0.32.9±0.30.735
AV mean pressure gradient, mm Hg18.2±4.518.9±5.118.8±5.50.755
AV peak pressure gradient, mm Hg33.5±7.234.3±8.134.3±7.90.593
AS severity, n (%)0.362
 Mild AS74 (64.3)41 (59.4)14 (50)
 Moderate AS41 (35.7)28 (40.6)14 (50)
Left ventricular ejection fraction, %63.7±5.164.6±4.262.8±5.80.225
Follow-up duration, median years (Q1, Q3)3.9 (2.8, 5.3)3.5 (2.7, 5.0)3.1 (2.6, 4.1)0.091
  • *P<0.017 for the pairwise comparison of non-user versus unfavourable DPP-4 inhibitor.

  • †P<0.017 for the pairwise comparison of non-user versus favourable DPP-4 inhibitor.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; AS, aortic stenosis; AV, aortic valve; DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1C, oxygenated haemoglobin; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Q1, 25% quantile; Q3, 75% quantile.