Table 3

HRs and 95% CIs of cardiovascular outcomes by income category and adjusted for covariates in cohort with AF

IncomeP value for trend
<$40 000$40–$59 000$60–$74 000$75–$99 000≥$100 000
Heart failure*
 Model 11.41 (1.28 to 1.55)1.30 (1.17 to 1.44)1.22 (1.08 to 1.38)1.18 (1.05 to 1.33)1 (ref)<0.0001
 Model 21.19 (1.07 to 1.32)1.14 (1.02 to 1.28)1.11 (0.98 to 1.26)1.10 (0.97 to 1.24)1 (ref)0.03
 Model 31.17 (1.05 to 1.30)1.13 (1.01 to 1.26)1.10 (0.97 to 1.25)1.09 (0.97 to 1.23)1 (ref)0.05
Myocardial infarction†
 Model 11.35 (1.14 to 1.60)1.28 (1.07 to 1.54)1.18 (0.95 to 1.46)1.10 (0.89 to 1.36)1 (ref)0.005
 Model 21.18 (0.98 to 1.42)1.16 (0.96 to 1.41)1.09 (0.87 to 1.36)1.05 (0.85 to 1.30)1 (ref)0.42
 Model 31.18 (0.98 to 1.41)1.15 (0.95 to 1.40)1.09 (0.87 to 1.36)1.05 (0.84 to 1.30)1 (ref)0.46
Ischaemic stroke‡
 Model 11.06 (0.95 to 1.18)0.97 (0.86 to 1.1)0.99 (0.86 to 1.14)1.00 (0.87 to 1.15)1 (ref)0.36
 Model 20.98 (0.87 to 1.11)0.92 (0.81 to 1.04)0.95 (0.82 to 1.09)0.97 (0.84 to 1.11)1 (ref)0.62
 Model 30.99 (0.88 to 1.12)0.92 (0.81 to 1.05)0.95 (0.82 to 1.1)0.97 (0.84 to 1.12)1 (ref)0.61
  • Model 1 adjusted for baseline age, sex and race.

  • Model 2 adjusted for baseline age, sex, race, education, hypertension, diabetes and prevalent ischaemic stroke, prevalent coronary heart disease, and prevalent heart failure.

  • Model 3 adjusted for baseline age, sex, race, education, hypertension, diabetes, prevalent ischaemic stroke, prevalent coronary heart disease, prevalent heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, and oral anticoagulant use.

  • *Prevalent heart failure was excluded from model 3 when calculating incident heart failure.

  • †Prevalent coronary heart disease was excluded from model 3 when calculating incident myocardial infarction.

  • ‡Prevalent ischaemic stroke was excluded from model 3 when calculating incident ischaemic stroke.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation.